This paper deals with some aspects of English for professional purposes. After a short historical overview of theories related to LSP (language for special purposes), we focus on some of the linguistic peculiarities of English for Specific Purposes. Our aim is to make a synthesis of the main theories and debates upon the issue of specialized languages, as the number of articles and writings on the topic is tremendous. We also wish to make a brief presentation of the most important contributions (still, we have to admit that the list of authors and articles is much longer, we had to make a selection, due to the editorial limitations of this article). We have gathered and synthesized what authors like Cabré, Celce-Murcia, Crystal, Croitoru, Motos, Strevens and others have said and we have also tried to make a comprehensive list of the names given to specialized language or language for specific purposes over time. Still, we have to state that it is not our goal to come up with examples or conclusions regarding our own personal ESP experience and/or previous research. The goal of this present study is to make a synthesis of the theories and writings on the topic of English for specific purposes (i.e. metaelemzés/metaanalysis in Klaudy's words or szekunder kutatás/secondary research in Fóris's words).
This paper aims at making a presentation of the main regional ideologies of the Transylvanian cultural and spiritual life in the interwar period. The Hungarians’ Transylvanianism and the Romanians’ creative localism or ardelenism alike offered a wide range of key concepts and ideas that shaped/and were shaped by the cultural context of the time. Both regionalisms - Romanian and Hungarian - shared many of these concepts and ideas, although they never really sustained an open and efficient communication due to a series of causes. The shifts that occurred in the self-defining strategies, the communication breakdowns that characterized the relationships between the two cultural milieus and intellectual circles, the identity discourses that can be spotted in the media of that time, and the movement known as Transylvanianism are all approached with the purpose of identifying the causes that hindered real and efficient communication between Romanians and Hungarians.
This paper is related to the problems of translating horticultural terms and names. We deal with the translation issues of botanical names in general, then we focus on some old apple varietal names (Pónyik, Batul, Tányéralma, etc.) and the way these names are treated in English/Romanian texts. We also present some aspects related to the historical background of name giving and pomology. Our aim is to identify the main tendencies of such names in scientific writings and other types of texts. Prior to the publication of the Cultivated Code in the 1950s, the situation of varietal names was rather ambiguous, and sometimes several varietal names were circulating for the very same fruit variety or cultivar. That is why today we still talk about synonymy and translation in the field of variety names despite the fact that the Code stipulates a preference for non-translation. We also attempt to analyse the etymological implications of the above mentioned apple variety names, as especially Pónyik and Batul are equally claimed by Hungarian and Romanian pomologists.
The problem of translation in foreign language classes cannot be dealt with unless we attempt to make an overview of what translation meant for language teaching in different periods of language pedagogy. From the translation-oriented grammar-translation method through the complete ban on translation and mother tongue during the times of the audio-lingual approaches, we have come today to reconsider the role and status of translation in ESL classes. This article attempts to advocate for translation as a useful ESL class activity, which can completely fulfil the requirements of communicativeness. We also attempt to identify some activities and games, which rely on translation in some books published in the 1990s and the 2000s.
Kürtőskalács, or chimney cake, is a Hungarian bakery specialty, made from sweet, yeast dough. The Hungarian lexeme kürtőskalács has two etymological explanations, and it has a lot of synonyms. The disputes over the paternity of this product between Romanian authorities and Hungarians have made us consider the history and origin of the term, the evolution of the recipe, and other additional information regarding linguistic, cultural, and translational implications (we have identified the first attempts to translate the recipe of the dish into Romanian). The very first written recipe known today dates back to 1784, when Gazda Aszszonyi Böltseségnek Tárháza, Dániel Istvánné Gróf Mária Mikes’s cookery book was issued, although the word had been mentioned in much older documents. The name kürtőskalács has not penetrated the Romanian language yet, although attempts to translate its recipe can be spotted in the 19th century. The words used by Romanians are either transcriptions or borrowings, or adapted or coined variants (cozonac secuiesc, colac secuiesc) or even calques (the case of tulnic, which is used to echo the phonetic similarity of kürt (trumpet) and kürtő (chimney stove) in Hungarian, as tulnic means a kind of trumpet). Our research focuses on the history of this product, the history of the words related to it, taking into account one of the most interesting parts of gastronomic literature, i.e. the history of cookery books.