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Yacoub A. Yousef, Yasmin Hajja, Ibrahim Nawaiseh, Mustafa Mehyar, Iyad Sultan, Rasha Deebajah, Khalil Rawashdeh, Samer Khurma, Imad Jaradat and Maysa Al-Hussaini

Abstract

Objective: To analyze the histopathologic features of the eyes with intraocular retinoblastoma primarily treated by enucleation in a tertiary cancer center in Jordan.

Material and Method: A retrospective case series of 50 eyes for 49 patients who had pathologically confirmed retinoblastoma after enucleation as primary therapy. The main outcome measures included demographics, laterality, international classification of intraocular retinoblastoma, choroid invasion, optic nerve invasion, anterior chamber invasion, and tumor differentiation.

Results: The median age at enucleation was 30 months. Twenty-seven (55%) patients were males, and 19 (39%) patients had bilateral retinoblastoma. High risk pathological features were seen as massive choroid invasion in 9 (18%) eyes, post-laminar optic nerve invasion in 7 (14%) eyes, and anterior chamber, iris or ciliary body invasion in 7 (14%) eyes. Thirty-seven (74%) tumors were well/moderately differentiated, and 13 (26%) were poorly differentiated. Poorly differentiated tumors presented later (median 31 months) than well/ moderately differentiated tumors (26 months) and were associated with a higher incidence of high-risk pathological features. No single ICRB group C eye had high-risk pathological features, while 17% and 4% of group D eyes and 28% and 33% of group E eyes had massive choroid invasion and post-laminar optic nerve invasion, respectively. Eighteen (36%) patients received adjuvant chemotherapy for high risk pathological features, and at median follow up of 40 months, no single case had metastasis or was dead.

Conclusion: Our pathologic findings were similar to the developed world. They were supportive of the predictive power of the international classification of retinoblastoma staging system for the likelihood of high risk pathological features. Poorly differentiated tumors were associated with a higher incidence of high risk pathological features than well/moderately differentiated tumors.

Open access

Ibrahim Nawaiseh, Maysa Al-Hussaini, Aamer Alhamwi, Mustafa Meyar, Iyad Sultan, Khalil Alrawashdeh, Jaradat Imad and Yacoub A Yousef

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study the impact of the retinoblastoma growth pattern (endophytic vs. exophytic) on the clinical and pathological features after primary enucleation.

Material and Method: A retrospective case series of 42 eyes of 41 patients who had pathologically confirmed retinoblastoma. The main outcome measures included demographics, laterality, international intraocular retinoblastoma (IIRC) group, vitreous seeding, neovascular glaucoma, choroid invasion, optic nerve invasion, metastasis, and survival.

Results: The median age at diagnosis was 30 months. Nineteen (46%) patients were males, and 17(41%) patients had bilateral retinoblastomas. Eight (19%) eyes were IIRC group C, 20 (48%) eyes were IIRC group D, and 14 (33%) eyes were IIRC group E. Nineteen (45%) tumors were endophytic, 14 (33%) were exophytic, and 9 (21%) were mixed. Choroid invasion was seen in 4 (21%) of the endophytic tumors, 5 (36%) of the exophytic tumors, and 8 (89%) of the mixed tumors (p=0.025). A mixed growth pattern was associated with massive choroid invasion in 5 (56%) of eyes. Neovascular glaucoma was seen in 5 (56%) of the mixed tumors (p=0.0376). Vitreous seeds were seen in 6 (67%) of the mixed tumors (p=0.0448). Optic nerve invasion as well as patients’ age at diagnosis, gender, and tumor laterality had no correlation with tumor growth pattern. At a median follow up of 36 months, no single case had metastasis or was dead.

Conclusion: Exophytic tumors have higher risk of choroid invasion, while endophytic tumors have higher risk of vitreous seeding. The mixed tumor growth pattern is associated with more advanced IIRC group, more risk of neovascular glaucoma, and more risk of massive choroid invasion.

Open access

Ahmed Zewar, Ibrahim Nawaiseh, Imad Jaradat, Jakub Khzouz, Khaleel Alrawashdeh, Ghadeer Abdeen, Mustafa Mehyar, Samer Khurma and Yacoub A. Yousef

Abstract

Objective: The aim of this study was evaluate the features and outcome of management of uveal melanoma in King Hussein Cancer Center as an example of a referral tertiary cancer center in the Middle East.

Material and Method: This was aetrospective, observational case series of 46 eyes of 46 patients with uveal melanoma. Data collection required access to medical records, radiology and pathology reports, and laboratory results. The main outcome measures included age at diagnosis, tumor location and dimensions, TNM stage, treatment modality, visual outcome, metastasis, and mortality.

Results: There was slight female preference, and the median age at diagnosis was 45 years. Eighteen (39%) eyes were treated by primary enucleation, and 28 (61%) eyes were treated by I-125 radioactive plaque. The melanoma was in the choroid in 40 (87%) eyes and in the ciliary body in 6 (13%) eyes, with no single tumor in the iris. According to the 7th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system (UICC/AJCC); 8 (17%) were T1, 17 (36%) were T2, 16 (35%) were T3, and 5 (11%) were T4. One (2%) patient showed lymph node metastasis (N1), and 6 (13%) patients showed distant metastasis (M1). Pathologically, 2 (10%) of the enucleated eyes were spindle cell type, 4 (20%) were epithelioid cell type, and 14 (70%) were mixed type. Extrascleral extension was seen in three (15%) eyes, and optic nerve invasion in two (10%) eyes. After brachytherapy, 26 (93%) eyes were salvaged, and 2 eyes were consecutively enucleated; one for tumor recurrence, and one for uncontrolled painful neovascular glaucoma. The eye salvage rate post plaque was 93% (26/28), and the visual acuity for the salvaged eyes was equal or better than 0.5 in 11 (42%) eyes, 0.1-0.4 in 5 (19%) eyes, and less than 0.1 in 10 (38%) eyes.

Conclusion: The incidence of uveal melanomas in our region is low compared to that in the West with a younger age at presentation. Candidate tumors for radioactive plaque therapy were successfully controlled in 93% of cases.