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Open access

Tatjana Zaķe, Sandra Skuja, Aivars Lejnieks, Valērija Groma and Ilze Konrāde

Abstract

Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) mainly include Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) and Graves’ disease (GD), which are characterised by the presence of circulating antibodies against various thyroid autoantigens and infiltration of the thyroid gland by autoreactive lymphocytes. Despite the significant advancement in the knowledge of AITD pathogenesis in the last decade, the specific immunological mechanisms responsible for development of the disease are not thoroughly understood. Classically, HT has long been considered as a T helper (Th)1-mediated disease, while a Th2-driven autoimmune response is dominant for GD development. However, this classification has changed due to the description of Th17 lymphocytes, which suggested participation of these cells in AITD, particularly HT pathogenesis. Moreover, a shift in the balance between Th17 and T regulatory (Treg) cells has been observed in thyroid autoimmunity. We have observed overexpression of IL-17, the prominent effector cytokine of Th17, within thyroid tissues from HT and GD patients in our studies. The present review will focus on recent data regarding the role of Treg and Th17 lymphocytes in AITD pathogenesis. In addition, the impact and proposed mechanisms of the predominant environmental factors triggering the autoimmune response to the thyroid will be discussed.

Open access

Daiga Konrade, Dace Kļava, Ilze Grāmatiņa, Solvita Kampuse and Tatjana Kince

Abstract

The results of carrot and pumpkin processing are by-products like bark and peel. Therefore, food processing waste has the potential to be converted into useful products and utilised as a source of functional compounds for consumers. Carrot and pumpkin by-products contain carotenoids, precursors of vitamin A, and dietary fibre. The consumption of these is linked to decreased incidence of cardiovascular disease, diverticulosis, and colon cancer. The aim of the study was to investigate means to increase nutritional compound content in extruded crispbread with carrot and pumpkin processing by-products. Samples were prepared from wheat flour 70%, rice flour 24%, and wheat bran 4% as control with addition of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20 % dried and grinded carrot and pumpkin by-products. Products were extruded in GÖTTFERT 1 screw Extrusiometer L series. The temperatures for extrusion zones were set at 78/83/98 °C. Total carotenoid content of the new products was determined by spectrophotometry. Total dietary fibre content was determined with Enzymatic-Gravimetric Method, AOAC 985.29. The total carotenoid content increased significantly with addition of pumpkin and carrot by-products in crispbread samples. The increase of dietary fibre content was from 9.3 mg·100 g−1 in wheat crispbread to 15.89–16.08 mg·100 g−1 in products with added carrot and pumpkin by-products.

Open access

Ieva Kalere, Ilze Konrāde, Anna Proskurina, Sabīne Upmale, Tatjana Zaķe, Normunds Limba, Gita Krieviņa, Aivars Lejnieks and Pēteris Tretjakovs

Abstract

There is a close relationship between melatonin as a circadian regulator and insulin, glucagon and somatostatin production. This study aimed to describe subgroups of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients that may benefit from melatonin clock-targeting properties. The study involved 38 participants: 26 T2DM patients, and 12 participants without diabetes in the control group. Subjects were asked to complete the questionnaire of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Standard biochemical venous sample testing was performed, and a sample of saliva was collected for melatonin testing. Melatonin concentration in participants without obesity (body mass index (BMI) < 30 kg/m2) was significantly higher than in obese participants: 13.2 (6.4; 23.50) pg/ml vs 5.9 (0.78; 13.1) pg/ml, p = 0.035. Subjects with BMI 30 kg/m2 had a significantly higher PSQI score than non-obese subjects: 7 (4.5; 10) vs 5.5 (3; 7), p = 0.043. T2DM patients showed significantly lower levels of melatonin than the control group: 6.1 (0.78; 12.2) pg/ml vs 17.8 (8.2; 25.5) pg/ml, p = 0.003. T2DM patients using short-acting insulin analogues showed a significantly higher PSQI score than patients not using insulin: 9 (6; 10) vs 6 (3; 8), respectively (p = 0.025). Poor sleep quality was more prevalent in patients with diabetic retinopathy than in those without this complication (p = 0.031). Lower melatonin levels were detected in T2DM and obese patients. Furthermore, poor sleep quality was observed in T2DM patients using short-acting insulin analogues and those with diabetic retinopathy, and obese individuals.

Open access

Lolita Vija Neimane, Ilze Konrade, Gita Avotiņa, Aneka Klaviņa, Jeļena Zagorska, Inese Martinsone, Vinita Cauce, Ieva Kalere, Vincenzo Baylon and Aivars Lejnieks

Abstract

Milk and dairy products are studied as alternative iodine sources, because salt iodisation is controversial due to high salt consumption leading to cardiovascular diseases. However, the iodine concentration in milk markedly varies. This study evaluated the iodine concentration in cow’s milk available in the Latvian market. Iodine and fat concentration was analysed with a spectrophotometer “Varian Cary 50” based ISO 2446:2008 in 20 milk samples. Data from the Central Statistical Bureau and survey among pregnant women were used to analyse milk product consumption and its impact on iodine status. Average iodine concentration in milk samples was 457.6 (179.6) μg/L, winter samples had a higher concentration of iodine than summer samples: 563.4 (329.6) μg/L and 469.2 (162.0) μg/L, but this is not statistically significant p < 0.05. Iodine concentration in skimmed milk was 490 μg/L, milk with the reduced fat content 501.7 (174.8) μg/L, and whole milk — 422.6 (192.1)1 μg/L. Milk consumption decreased from 2002 to 2014, while yogurt and cheese consumption increased. Higher consumption of milk and milk products was related to higher urinary iodine concentration ρ = 0.115; p = 0.003. Milk and milk products are an important iodine source in Latvia and their consumption should be promoted.

Open access

Ilze Konrāde, Ieva Kalere, Ieva Strēle, Marina Makrecka-Kūka, Vija Veisa, Didzis Gavars, Dace Rezeberga, Valdis Pīrāgs, Aivars Lejnieks, Uģis Gruntmanis, Lolita Neimane, Edgars Liepiņš and Maija Dambrova

Abstract

In the absence of a mandatory salt iodisation programme, two nationwide cross-sectional cluster surveys revealed persisting iodine deficiency among Latvian schoolchildren during the spring season and a noteworthy iodine deficiency in pregnant women in Latvia; these deficiencies warrant intervention. The consequences of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency during pregnancy and lactation can adversely affect foetal brain development. Data from a Latvian population survey revealed the consumption of approximately 100 μg of iodine per day through foods and iodised salt. Therefore, strategies to increase the consumption of iodine-containing products should be implemented, particularly for children. In addition, to meet the increased iodine requirement during pregnancy, pregnant women should take daily supplements containing 150 μg iodine from the earliest time possible. All women of childbearing age should be advised to increase their dietary iodine intake by using iodised table salt and iodine-rich products: seafood, milk and milk products. For women with pre-existing thyroid pathologies, the medical decision should be considered on a case-by-case basis. Urinary iodine concentration monitoring among schoolchildren and pregnant women and neonatal thyrotropin registry analysis every five years would be an appropriate strategy for maintaining iodine intake within the interval that prevents iodine deficiency disorders.