Dainis Ruņģis, Anna Korica, Agnese Gailīte, Ilze Pušpure and Ilze Veinberga
Common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) has a widespread distribution throughout Europe, and Latvia is almost at the north eastern edge of the distribution range. In Europe, ash is threatened by ash dieback, a disease caused by the introduced ascomycete Hymenoscyphus fraxineus. Chloroplast and nuclear DNA markers have been used to study the genetic diversity and population structure of ash both in a broader pan-European context as well as in more restricted regions. Some of the markers analysed in these previously published reports were also utilised in this study, enabling comparisons of the genetic parameters calculated from the nuclear SSR marker data and of the haplotypes identified with the chloroplast markers. Analysis of chloroplast markers revealed one dominant haplotype in Latvian stands, which corresponds to the haplotype previously found in Eastern Europe and Scandinavia. A second haplotype, corresponding to a previously reported central European haplotype was found in all individuals from the Ķemeri stand, indicating that this stand was naturally established from introduced germplasm, which was planted in a neighbouring park. The nuclear SSR markers revealed low levels of differentiation of Latvian F. excelsior stands, probably due efficient pollen flow between stands. The analysis of both chloroplast and nuclear DNA markers has revealed different aspects of the structure and provenance of Latvian F. excelsior populations.
Ieva Ancveire, Ilze Gailite, Made Gailite and Janis Grabis
The information technology industry cannot be imagined without large- or small-scale projects. They are implemented to develop systems enabling key business processes and improving performance and enterprise resource management. However, projects often experience various difficulties during their execution. These problems are usually related to the three objectives of the project – costs, quality and deadline. A way these challenges can be solved is project risk management. However, not always the main problems and their influencing factors can be easily identified. Usually there is a need for a more profound analysis of the problem situation. In this paper, we propose the use of a Bayesian Network concept for quantitative risk management in agile projects. The Bayesian Network is explored using a case study focusing on a project that faces difficulties during the software delivery process. We explain why an agile risk analysis is needed and assess the potential risk factors, which may occur during the project. Thereafter, we design the Bayesian Network to capture the actual problem situation and make suggestions how to improve the delivery process based on the measures to be taken to reduce the occurrence of project risks.
Agnese Gailīte, Anita Gaile, Ilze Gaile, Angelika Voronova, Ilze Veinberga, Aina Kokare and Dainis Edgars Ruņģis
Rye (Secale cereale L.) is an important grain crop in Latvia, where it is mainly used for baking rye bread, which is a popular staple. However, the area under rye cultivation in Latvia is small, and the majority of varieties planted are foreign. In 1937, almost 290 000 ha of rye were planted, while in 2011, only 28 000 ha were planted, or ~5% of the area planted with cereals. The Latvian rye genetic resources collection contains nine accessions, including old and new cultivars, landraces and one repatriated accession, which was previously held in the N. I. Vavilov Research Institute of Plant Industry collection. A set of descriptors has been developed for rye, and field evaluations of the Latvian rye collection have been started. A set of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers has been utilised for genetic fingerprinting of the collection. The initial genetic results indicate that the Latvian rye collection contains a high degree of genetic diversity. Analyses are continuing in order to more fully characterise the collection both phenotypically and genetically.
Georgijs Moisejevs, Linda Gailīte, Sergejs Isajevs, Liene Ņikitina-Zaķe, Inga Kempa, Dainius Jančiauskas, Ilze Ķikuste, Armands Sīviņš, Guntis Ancāns and Mārcis Leja
Histamine has an important role in the process of the gastric mucosa inflammation acting via histamine receptor H2 (encoded by the gene HRH2). Single nucleotide polymorphism of the enhancer element of HRH2 gene promoter rs2067474 (1018G>A)may be associated with changes of expression of the receptor. We attempted to clarify the association of this polymorphism with gastric cancer and/or atrophic gastritis in the Latvian (Caucasian) population. The study group consisted of 121 gastric cancer patients and 650 patients with no evidence of gastric neoplasia on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Genotyping for rs2067474 was performed with the TaqMan probe-based system using a commercially available probe for RT-PCR. The frequency of the A allele in the gastric cancer group was 0.41% and in the control group — 1.54% (p = 0.231). No significant differences were found comparing genotypes between gastric cancer versus control patients (OR = 0.236, CI95% = 0.030–1.896), patients with (n = 165) versus without (n = 485) gastric metaplastic lesions (OR = 0.854, CI95% = 0.288–2.540) and patients with (n = 297) and without (n = 353) gastric atrophic lesions (OR = 1.145, CI95% = 0.451–2.906). Our findings suggest that the HRH2 -1018G>A polymorphism (rs2067474) is neither associated with gastric cancer nor the grade of atrophic gastritis in the Latvian (Caucasian) population.