Hana Vavrouchová, Mária Pákozdiová and Ilona Svobodová
Our study is focused on the natural environment significance and potential for the development of a wider region. A special emphasis is put on the geographical category of small towns, which play an important role in stabilizing the population of the Czech Republic. In this context, a key factor of planning in the rural region is the demarcation of a catchment region and the determination of its potential. Natural environment (primary landscape structure) is a basic determinant of area development at all the levels. This paper aims at the natural environment analyses of the small towns in the South Moravian Region, with emphasis on the development opportunities and limitations. In this study, small towns are considered to be all the residential units holding a town status, with the exception of district towns and the city of Brno. The study is a part of the research project supported in 2011 by the Internal Grant Agency of Mendel University in Brno titled “Small towns - Motors of the South Moravian countryside development”.
During 2008-2012, field tests of resistance to Mycosphaerella graminicola (Fuckel) J. Schröt. were conducted on a set of selected wheat varieties and related forms. Various M. graminicola isolates obtained from the Crop Research Institute in Prague were used for infection. Resistance of genotypes to three different isolates was tested in each year with the exception of 2009 and 2010, when identical isolates were used. A variant without artificial infection was used as control. Assorted varieties of winter and spring wheat, synthetic hexaploid wheat (SW), tritordeum (×Tritordeum Ascherson et Graebner), and one sample of haynaldoticum (×Haynaldoticum sardoum Meletti et Onnis) were tested. The aim was to select potential donors of resistance. The average infection rate for the set of spring wheat varieties over the 5 years was 6.7% (con-trol 0.5%), for tritordeum it was 0.3% (control 0.1%), for SW it was 0.7% (control 0.1%), and for haynaldoticum it was 1.7% (control 0.2%). The infection of winter wheat was 18.6% (control 3.8%). High average resistance was found in tritordeum, haynaldoticum, and some forms of SW. Lower resistance was found in conventional wheat varieties. The results were influenced by the degree of isolate virulence, growing season, and developmental stages of plants at the time of inoculation.
From a global perspective, the growing of grapevines in the Czech Republic is of peripheral importance. For a group of grape-growing villages in southern Moravia, however, the making of wine is bound up with local history, traditions and cultural life, and contributes significantly to the local economy. This paper describes the current status of viticulture in Bohemia and Moravia, addressing changes in the number and structure of wine producers and pointing out some qualitative changes that the business is undergoing. Changing consumer tastes have brought a demand for quality wines of local origin, which cannot be met without high quality care of vineyards throughout the lifetime of the vines. Special attention is given to two alternative ways of tending vineyards - the development of integrated production, and organic viticulture - that are developing rapidly in the Czech Republic even when compared to Austria and Germany