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Annamária Pakai, Éva Brantmüller, Vajda Réka, Ilona Karácsony and Péter Balázs


The occurrence of cervix cancer is outstandingly high in Zala County, which is situated in the Western Transdanubian region of Hungary. The aim of our study was to reveal why women do not take the opportunity offered by the state and what reasons there are for the nonattendance at screenings. A total of 1000 Hungarian women aged 15 to 60 years were included in the sample. The results of our study revealed that 13.8% of women participating in our research program have never been to a gynaecological cancer screening. Concerning this fact, the following groups deserve greater attention: 15-19 years old, those only with basic school qualifications, the unmarried and the unemployed. To improve our national mortality indexes, it is necessary to continue the cancer screenings in a well motivated target population. Achieving this in cervix cancer screening, there are available conception and infrastructure alike provided by the health administration. The weakness of the system is the low participation rate of the population.

Open access

Viktor Oláh, Erzsébet Szőllősi, Ágnes Lakatos, Péter Kanalas, Balázs Nyitrai and Ilona Mészáros

Abstract -

Based on a four year leaf growth data-set we modelled the thermal time-dependent leaf ontogeny in upper and lower canopy layers of mature sessile oak trees, in a Quercetum petraeae-cerris forest stand (NE Hungary). Our regression models revealed no considerable differences between the timing of leaf unfolding and leaf expansion of different canopy layers. On the other hand seasonal course in leaf mass-to-area ratio (LMA) indicated that sun leaves needed considerably longer thermal time to fully develop their anatomical structures compared to shade leaves. LMA of sun leaves was higher during the whole leaf maturation process suggesting that ‘sun’ and ‘shade’ characteristics develop in very early stage of leaf ontogeny. Functioning of photosynthetic apparatus (Fv/Fo) in shade leaves have built up faster and performed better in all developmental stages which could be attributed to two main factors: 1) very early determination of leaf traits as a function of light environment and 2) evolving shading effect of upper canopy layer eliminates photoinhibition in lower leaves.