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  • Author: Iliana D. Atanassova x
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Adipocytokines, Neuropeptide Y and Insulin Resistance in Overweight Women with Gynoid and Android Type of Adipose Tissue Distribution


The AIM of the study was to compare the levels of certain adipose tissue hormones in women with the two main morphological types of obesity - android and gynoid obesity.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 2 groups of age- and weight-matched women with android (n = 32) and gynoid (n = 27) type of obesity, and a group of age-matched healthy women (n = 24) with normal weight and body constitution. Leptin, resistin, tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα), neuropeptide Y (NPY), glucose and insulin were measured.HOMA index was calculated.

RESULTS: Leptin levels in the women with gynoid obesity did not differ significantly from those in the controls and the women with android obesity. The controls had significantly lower leptin levels compared with the android obesity women. NPY was significantly higher in the control women compared to the women with android obesity and did not differ significantly between the two groups of obese women. TNFα levels in all groups were very similar. Resistin did not show significant differences between all groups but tended to have the lowest levels in the controls. In the women with android obesity, insulin was significantly higher than that in the women with gynoid obesity and the controls. Insulin resistance was found in the women with android obesity only. Basal insulin and HOMA index in the women with gynoid obesity did not differ significantly from the values in the control group.

CONCLUSION: The results from this study contribute to understanding the association of adipose tissue hormones and insulin resistance in obesity. When adipose tissue is predominantly distributed in the abdominal area at similar amount and percentage of body fats, leptin production is higher and insulin resistance develops. In the gynoid type of adipose tissue predisposition, overt insulin resistance is not found, leptin levels does not differ significantly from those in the control group.

Open access
Influence of Serum Levels of Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone and Anti-Thyroid Peroxidase Antibodies, Age and Gender on Depression as Measured by the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale


The AIM of the present study was to explore the level of depression in the respondents using the Zung self-rating depression scale (SDS) and find a correlation with the levels of the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and the anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO), the age and gender of the participants. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 2401 subjects aged 20-84 yrs were included, 1344 of them female aged 48.7 ± 14.4 yrs and 1057 male, aged 46.5 ± 14.5 yrs (p < 0.001). All participants completed the Zung SDS questionnaire and a depressive score was calculated and interpreted as follows: less than 49 points - no depression, between 50 and 59 points - mild depression, between 60 and 69 points - moderate depression and more than 69 points - severe depression. Body height and weight were measured and serum TSH and Anti-TPO were determined. RESULTS: SDS was higher in the females (47.6 ± 9.7 vs. 41.7 ± 8.6, p < 0.001) and correlated with the subjects’ age (Spearman’s ρfemale = 0.447, p < 0.001, ρmale = 0.402, p < 0.001). Depression was more prevalent in the females (all p < 0.001) with hypothyroidism than in the euthyroid subjects (odds ratio 1.8, 95% CI 1.15-2.80, p < 0.011). The odds ratio for depression was 3.47 (2.64-4.57) for the female gender and the risk of depression increased by 6% (5 - 7) with each added year of age. The anti-TPO, BMI and waist circumference did not influence the regression models. CONCLUSION: The depressive score was higher in the females and increased with age. Hypothyroidism determined a higher risk of depression in the females

Open access