Ihor Neyko, Zinoviy Yurkiv, Mykhailo Matusiak and Olena Kolchanova
Significant increase of biological stability, timber volume, and economic value of forests is impossible without refinement and improvement of the organization, and implementation of forest seed production on a genetic and breeding basis. It is possible to solve this task by creating and efficiently functioning in situ and ex situ facilities.
In Ukraine, the basic principles of plus selection are envisaged, which include the selection and testing progeny of plus trees. The total number of progeny tests in Ukraine is 106 plots, in which 1,079 genotypes of plus trees are presented. Taking into account the total number of plus trees in Ukraine (4,560), only 23.7% was subjected to progeny tests. The largest number of progeny tests are represented by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) – 76 plots and a significantly smaller number of plots for English oak (Quercus robur L.) – 21. The corresponding representation of genotypes is for pine – 520, for oak – 365.
The area of tree breeding units in Ukraine is very small (0.4–0.6%) of the total forest area in the region. Despite the available areas, the use of in situ and ex situ objects for harvesting seed in Ukraine is low, around 30%. In the central region of Ukraine, the share of in situ and ex situ objects from the total forest area is 0.1–0.5%. On these sites, from 0 to 54% is harvested, which is insufficient.
According to the results of the conducted research, it was established that the areas of permanent forest-seed base (in situ and ex situ units) are insignificant and their use is insufficient. Testing of more than 70% of the selected plus trees is required. An important trend is to study the genotype-environment interaction in connection with trends of global climate change.