The eggbeater kick presents an important basic technical skill in water polo. The aim of this study was to examine some different tests in order to recommend the best ones for the evaluation of the eggbeater kick. Twenty eight young male water polo players performed one test (squat jump) on land and ten tests in water: tethered swimming with legs only, using alternating and simultaneous eggbeater kicks, jumps out of water from basic and vertical (arms vertically above the head) position, water start and swimming two meters and swimming horizontally with legs only five meters with a flying start. The differences between tests were checked by executing dependent t-tests, while Pearson"s correlation coefficients were calculated to evaluate the correlation between different parameters. Results showed that when performing alternate eggbeater kicks greater average forces were produced by the water polo players when compared to consecutive simultaneous eggbeater kicks. However, a short time maximal acceleration of the body in the vertical and horizontal plane was greater when the single simultaneous kick was performed. It was determined that horizontal swimming using legs only and a squat jump were less useful for the evaluation of the eggbeater kick. Therefore, the recommendation was to measure the average force of successive alternating eggbeater kicks, the height of the jump out of the water from the basic position and the water start and swim over a distance of 2 meters.
In the present study, the effect of frequent, immediate, augmented feedback on the increase of throwing velocity was investigated. An increase of throwing velocity of a handball set shot when knowledge of results was provided or not provided during training was compared. Fifty female and seventy-three male physical education students were assigned randomly to the experimental or control group. All participants performed two series of ten set shots with maximal effort twice a week for six weeks. The experimental group received information regarding throwing velocity measured by a radar gun immediately after every shot, whereas the control group did not receive any feedback. Measurements of maximal throwing velocity of an ordinary handball and a heavy ball were performed, before and after the training period and compared. Participants who received feedback on results attained almost a four times greater relative increase of the velocity of the normal ball (size 2) as compared to the same intervention when feedback was not provided (8.1 ± 3.6 vs. 2.7 ± 2.9%). The velocity increases were smaller, but still significant between the groups for throws using the heavy ball (5.1 ± 4.2 and 2.5 ± 5.8 for the experimental and control group, respectively). Apart from the experimental group throwing the normal ball, no differences in velocity change for gender were obtained. The results confirmed that training oriented towards an increase in throwing velocity became significantly more effective when frequent knowledge of results was provided.
The purpose of this study was to determine test–retest reliability for peak barbell velocity (Vpeak) during the bench press (BP) and bench press throw (BPT) exercises for loads corresponding to 20–70% of one-repetition maximum (1RM). Thirty physically active collegiate men conducted four evaluations after a preliminary BP 1RM determination (1RM·bw-1 = 1.02 ± 0.16 kg·kg-1). In counterbalanced order, participants performed two sessions of the BP in one week and two sessions of the BPT in another week. Recovery time between sessions within the same week was 48 hours and recovery time between sessions of different weeks was 120 hours. On each day of evaluation the individual load-velocity relationship at each tenth percentile (20–70% of 1RM) in a Smith machine for the BP or BPT was determined. Participants performed three attempts per load, but only the best repetition (highest Vpeak), registered by a linear position transducer, was analysed. The BPT resulted in a significantly lower coefficient of variation (CV) for the whole load–velocity relationship, compared to the BP (2.48% vs. 3.22%; p = 0.040). Test–retest intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) ranged from r = 0.94-0.85 for the BPT and r = 0.91-0.71 for the BP (p < 0.001). The reduction in the biological within-subject variation in BPT exercise could be promoted by the braking phase that obligatorily occurs during a BP executed with light or moderate loads. Therefore, we recommend the BPT exercise for a most accurate assessment of upper-body velocity.
This study aimed to examine the correlation of different dry land strength and power tests with swimming start performance. Twenty international level female swimmers (age 15.3 ± 1.6 years, FINA point score 709.6 ± 71.1) performed the track freestyle start. Additionally, dry land tests were conducted: a) squat (SJ) and countermovement jumps (CMJ), b) squat jumps with additional resistance equivalent to 25, 50, 75 and 100% of swimmers’ body weight [BW]), and c) leg extension and leg flexion maximal voluntary isometric contractions. Correlations between dry land tests and start times at 5, 10 and 15 m were quantified through Pearson’s linear correlation coefficients (r). The peak bar velocity reached during the jumps with additional resistance was the variable most correlated to swimming start performance (r = -0.57 to -0.66 at 25%BW; r = -0.57 to -0.72 at 50%BW; r = -0.59 to -0.68 at 75%BW; r = -0.50 to - 0.64 at 100%BW). A few significant correlations between the parameters of the SJ and the CMJ with times of 5 and 10 m were found, and none with the isometric variables. The peak velocity reached during jumps with external loads relative to BW was found a good indicator of swimming start performance.