Genesis and stability of accessory phosphates in silicic magmatic rocks: a Western Carpathian case study
The formation of accessory phosphates in granites reflects many chemical and physical factors, including magma composition, oxidation state, concentrations of volatiles and degree of differentiation. The geotectonic setting of granites can be judged from the distribution and character of their phosphates. Robust apatite crystallization is typical of the early magmatic crystallization of I-type granitoids, and of late magmatic stages when increased Ca activity may occur due to the release of anorthite from plagioclase. Although S-type granites also accumulate apatite in the early stages, increasing phosphorus in late differentiates is common due to their high ASI. The apatite from the S-types is enriched in Mn compared to that in I-type granites. A-type granites characteristically contain minor amounts of apatite due to low P concentrations in their magmas. Monazite is typical of S-type granites but it can also become stable in late I-type differentiates. Huttonite contents in monazite correlate roughly positively with temperature. The cheralite molecule seems to be highest in monazite from the most evolved granites enriched in B and F. Magmatic xenotime is common mainly in the S-type granites, but crystallization of secondary xenotime is not uncommon. The formation of the berlinite molecule in feldspars in peraluminous melts may suppress phosphate precipitation and lead to distributional inhomogeneities. Phosphate mobility commonly leads to the formation of phosphate veinlets in and outside granite bodies. The stability of phosphates in the superimposed, metamorphic processes is restricted. Both monazite-(Ce) and xenotime-(Y) are unstable during fluid-activated overprinting. REE accessories, especially monazite and allanite, show complex replacement patterns culminating in late allanite and epidote formation.