The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of postpartum dysgalactia syndrome (PDS) and associated clinical signs in farmed sows in the Republic of Macedonia (RM) in the first 12-24 h postpartum. A total of 202 sows of different parity and different genetic lines from 5 pig farms in RM were included in the study. The sows and their litters were clinically examined 12-24 hours after farrowing. Postpartum dysgalactia syndrome was detected in 23.3% of all clinically examined sows, while prevalence between farms ranged from 14.8% to 38.1%. Altered piglet’s behavior was the most frequent clinical pattern observed in 68.1% of the PDS–affected (PDSA) sows. Regarding the clinical signs in PDSA sows detected among farms, significant differences were observed in the altered piglet’s behavior (p<0.05) and hypogalactia (p<0.05). Endometritis was more often detected in older sows (90%) compared to endometritis in younger animals (44.4%). In addition, fever was also more frequently diagnosed in higher parity (≥3 parity) sows (55.0%) in contrast to other PDSA sows (22.2%). This study has demonstrated the presence of PDS in farmed sows in RM. High frequency of altered piglet’s behavior found in this study could be an useful indicator for early detection of lactation problems in sows. Frequent pathological vaginal discharge in older sows indicates that endometritis plays an important role in the clinical manifestation of PDS. Further investigations should be conducted in order to identify specific risk factors associated with clinical PDS in farmed sows in RM.
Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic infectious disease in cattle caused mainly by Mycobacterium bovis and to a lesser extent by Mycobacterium caprae. The other members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) can also cause the disease in domestic and wild animals and all of them have a zoonotic potential. The main purpose of the study was to determine the presence and distribution of the tuberculous lesions in reactor cattle, and to isolate and identify the causative agents of bovine tuberculosis in the Republic of Macedonia. Lymph nodes and affected organs from 188 reactor cattle slaughtered due to a positive intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin test were analyzed by detection of tuberculous lesions, followed by isolation and molecular identification of the isolated mycobacteria. The isolation was performed on selective media - Lowenstein Jensen with glycerol, Lowenstein Jensen without glycerol and Stonebrink medium supplemented with pyruvate. The molecular identification of the MTBC members was performed by analysis of the Regions of difference (RD1, RD9 and RD4) and detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the lepA gene for Mycobacterium caprae. Typical tuberculous lesions were detected in 62 animals (33.0%) and the lesions were most prevalent in the mediastinal lymph nodes (47.5%). The isolated mycobacteria in the MTBC were identified as Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium caprae and were found in both animals with visible lesions (82.2%) and animals without visible lesions (27.7%). The slaughterhouse postmortem examinations and laboratory investigations should be included on regular bases in order to improve the National eradication program.
Aedes albopictus is an invasive mosquito species spreading throughout Europe and its presence in North Macedonia was recorded in 2016. Following the first detection in September 2018, we conducted a two-week mosquito monitoring by ovitraps in order to determine if there were established populations of Aedes albopictus in Skopje, the capital of North Macedonia. Ninety-four Ae. albopictus eggs (0 to 18 eggs per ovitrap per week) were collected from 7 (14%) ovitraps in 3 (30%) municipalities. Thirty-eight eggs (40.4%) successfully hatched and the adult mosquitoes were identified by morphology and PCR. No other potentially invasive species were identified during the monitoring period. Ae. albopictus distribution is expanding and poses a risk for an Aedes-borne disease transmission in North Macedonia. The available data highlight the need for a regular monitoring for tiger mosquitoes to plan adequate control measures.
Bacteria from the genus Brucella are causative agents of brucellosis - a zoonotic disease which affects many wild and domestic animal species and humans. Taking into account the significant socio-economic and public health impact of brucellosis, its control is of great importance for endemic areas. The chosen control strategy could be successful only if adapted to the current epidemiological situation. This implies that a choice of appropriate diagnostic procedures for detection and typing of Brucella spp. strains are of essential importance. Significant advancement of molecular techniques and their advantages compared to classical methods, give strong arguments in promotion of these techniques as a powerful tool for comprehensive diagnostics of brucellosis. Considering this, the major tasks of the study were to select and implement molecular tests for detection and genotyping Brucella spp. and evaluate their performances using DNA from cultivated brucellae (islolates) and limited number of tissue samples from seropositive animals. The obtained results confirmed that implemented real time PCR for Brucella spp. detection, as well as MLVA-16 used for genotyping, have excellent analytical sensitivity (4.2 fg of Brucella DNA were successfully detected and genotyped). Furthermore, compared to bacteriological cultivation of Brucella spp., real time PCR and MLVA-16 protocols showed superior diagnostic sensitivity and detected Brucella DNA in tissues from which Brucella could not be cultivated. Based on the summarized study results, we propose a diagnostic algorithm for detection and genotyping of Brucella spp. bacteria. Routine use of proposed diagnostic algorithm will improve the effectiveness of infection confirmation and help for accurate evaluation of epidemiological situation.