In the southern Julian Alps we described two communities whose tree layer is dominated by species from the genus Sorbus and noted two successional stages in the overgrowing of abandoned agricultural land (pastures, hay meadows). In the secondary succession on former subalpine pastures above the alp Planina Razor und under the Breginjski Stol ridge, where potential natural vegetation consists of subalpine beech forest, dwarf pine has been overgrown with mountain ash (Sorbus aucuparia) whose stands are classified into the new association Rhododendro hirsuti-Sorbetum aucupariae. Whitebeam (Sorbus aria) has established itself on steep former hay meadows in the belt of altimontane beech forests under Mts. Jalovnik and Krikov Vrh, on gullied slopes on mixed geological bedrock dominated by chert, and these stands are classified into the association Calamagrostio arundinaceae-Sorbetum ariae. While occupying only small areas these two pioneer stages, as the sites of some rare or protected species, are nevertheless important biotopes and play a vital role in protection against avalanches.
Based on comparisons between similar communities in northeastern Italy, southern Austria, central and southeastern Slovenia, and western Croatia, we classified black hornbeam and flowering ash phytocoenoses on steep rocky sites in the beech forest belt in northwestern and western Slovenia into the association Fraxinio orni-Ostryetum Aichinger 1933 and described its new subassociation -phyteumatetosum columnae in the foothills of the Julian Alps and in the northern part of the Dinaric Alps. Black hornbeam and flowering ash stands on steep shady slopes with a higher proportion of diagnostic species of beech and spruce forests are classified into the new association Rhododendro hirsuti-Ostryetum Franz ex Dakskobler, ass. nov. hoc loco, new subassociation -mercurialietosum perennis and the provisional variant var. Hemerocallis lilioasphodelus whose stands are floristically rather similar to the stands of the association Hemerocallido-Ostryetum.
Cyperus Eragrostis Lam. - A New Adventitious Species in the Flora of Slovenia
About ten years ago Cyperus eragrostis, a species originating in the tropical parts of South America, settled in a trench near the house at Podsabotin 49 in the Goriška Brda. From there the plant spread to similar neighbouring ruderal sites with hydromorphic soil, to roadside ditches and gravelly banks of the Pevmica, a stream on the border between Slovenia and Italy. Applying the standard Central-European phytosociological method we studied the stands in which this species grows together with other hygrophilous and ruderal species. These stands are dominated by character species of the classes Bidentetea tripartitae, Filipendulo-Convolvuletea, Molinio-Arrhenatheretea, Stellarietea mediae and Galio-Urticetea. Cyperus eragrostis is a new adventitious species in the Slovenian flora. Its ephemeral occurrence in Slovenia was first noted in Istria in 2003 (near Portorož, probably in the Sečovlje salt-pans) and later in 2006 (Gračišče). Its presence in Podsabotin and along the Pevmica, however, is not merely transitional (ephemeral); here, this alien species is likely to have already naturalized in the environment with warm and relatively moist sub-Mediterranean climate.
Two New Tall Herb Communities with the Dominant Laserpitium Siler and Grafia Golaka from the Se Alps (Ne Italy, W Slovenia)
The article describes two new tall herb communities in the Southeastern Alps, Centaureo julici-Laserpitietum sileris and Laserpitio sileri-Grafietum golakae. Both are long-term successional stages in the overgrowing of abandoned hay meadows in the altimontane and subalpine belt of the southern and southwestern Julian Alps (including the Julian Prealps), partly also the Carnic Alps, that have been abandoned for over 50 years. In the succession sere where the altimontane-subalpine Illyrian beech forest (Dentario pentaphylli-Fagetum, Ranunculo platanifolii-Fagetum, Polysticho lonchitis-Fagetum) is the potential natural vegetation on steep, sunny limestone (rarely dolomite) slopes, the species Laserpitium siler and (or) Grafia golaka act as inhibitors also due to their high allelopathic potential; in turn, spontaneous afforestation with spruce and some deciduous trees has been slow and gradual.
Viola Pyrenaica Ramond Ex Dc in the Northern Part of the Dinaric Mountains (The Plateaus of Trnovski Gozd and Nanos, Slovenia)
The article describes new localities of a south-European montane species Viola pyrenaica in the Julian Alps and in the Trnovski gozd and Nanos plateaus (the northern part of the Dinaric mountains). It has been established that in the localities known so far in Slovenia, the species grows on similar sites as elsewhere in the Alps and other mountain ranges of the Balkan Peninsula, above all on overgrown screes, stony grasslands, on forest edges, in light forests on stony ground and in tall herb communities on calcareous bedrock in the submontane, montane and subalpine belt (450 to 1600 m a.s.l.). The floristic composition of the communities in which it grows is presented in four tables. On the Trnovski gozd plateau it was found in various successional stages of abandoned pastures or grasslands of the association Genisto sericeae-Seslerietum kalnikensis and in open coppice stands of hop hornbeam and flowering ash, which are classified into the association Seslerio autumnalis-Ostryetum carpinifoliae.
Southeastern-Alpine endemic Leontodon hispidus subsp. brumatii (Cichoriaceae) in the Sava valley (central Slovenia)
In the spring and summer of 2010 a number of new localities of the southeastern-Alpine endemic Leontodon hispidus subsp. brumatii were found on temporarily flooded riparian rocks in the gorge of the Sava River between the village of Sava and Zidani Most (central Slovenia). The species has so far been known only in northeastern Italy and western Slovenia (the Soča valley). In order to obtain more specific information its sites were studied phytosociologically and the communities in which it grows in the Sava and the Soča valleys compared. Two new associations were described on the basis of these comparisons: Triseto argentei-Leontodontetum brumatii ass. nov. and Leontodonti brumatii-Seslerietum calcariae ass. nov. As this endemic taxon and its endemic communities are a characteristic of riparian flora and vegetation of some Slovenian mountain rivers and as its localities in the Sava valley are explicitly disjunct and the southeastern-most in the entire known distribution area, they deserve to be studied and protected.
Distribution of Letharia Vulpina (Lichenized Ascomycetes) in the Subalpine Larch Stands (Rhodothamno-Laricetum) in the Eastern Julian Alps (Slovenia)
The article provides the list of localities of Letharia vulpina in the eastern Julian Alps (northwestern Slovenia) that were recorded by the authors in 2010. Prior to this year the knowledge on the occurence of this lichenized fungus in Slovenia was insignificant (only one known locality, recorded already in the 19th century). With a phytosociological table we present the species composition and structure of natural subalpine larch stands (Rhodothamno-Laricetum deciduae) in which the species Letharia vulpina grows as an epiphyte on old and thick trees. It can also be expected in other Alpine regions in Slovenia where similar natural larch stands are preserved and the air is not over polluted.
Orobanche Pancicii Beck, a New Species to the Flora of Slovenia
We describe localities and sites of Orobanche pancicii, a new species of the Slovenian flora. It was recorded in the subalpine belt (1500 to 2000 m a.s.l.) on forest edges, clearings and on stony grasslands in the Julian Alps and the eastern Karavanke mountains, on the hosts Knautia drymeia, K. longifolia and Scabiosa lucida.
Based on our analysis of a large number of relevés of communities of moist rock crevices in western Slovenia (southern Julian Alps, northern part of the Trnovski Gozd Plateau) we described several new syntaxa with the endemic Primula carniolica. The most unique in terms of ecology is a hygrophytic chasmophytic community classified into the association Astrantio carniolicae-Primuletum carniolicae, which is, together with similar hygrophytic associations Astrantio carniolicae-Pinguiculetum alpinae and Campanulo cespitosae-Saxifragetum aizoidis, associations Phyteumato columnae-Primuletum carniolicae, Primulo carniolicae-Potentilletum clusianae and the subassociation Primuletum carniolicae violetosum biflorae, temporarily classified into the alliance Cystopteridion and order Potentilletalia caulescentis. Only the new association Paederoto luteae-Potentilletum caulescentis is classified into the alliance Physoplexido comosae-Saxifragion petraeae. The elevational range of chasmophytic communities with Primula carniolica is 200 to 1460 m a.s.l. Species that most commonly accompany Primula carniolica in rock crevices include Paederota lutea, Phyteuma scheuchzeri subsp. columnae, Sesleria caerulea, Aster bellidiastrum and moss Orthothecium rufescens.
We conducted a phytosociological study of alpine grasslands with dominant Luzula alpinopilosa in the Julian and Carnic Alps. Based on a comparison with similar communities elsewhere in the Alps we described a new association Junco jacquinii-Luzuletum alpinopilosae, which we classify into the provisional alliance Doronico glacialis-Juncion jacquinii, order Festucetalia spadiceae and class Juncetea trifidi. The new association characterises moist shady grasslands in gullies and on ledges on limestone admixed with marlstone and chert, in the elevation range between 2000 and 2500 m, where the snow cover persists for extended periods. We distinguish three subassociations: -galietosum anisophyllae (the most calcareous form), -potentilletosum aureae (typical form) and -leucanthemopsietosum alpinae (acidophilic form on Werfen sandstones in the Carnic Alps, which is the most similar to the stands of the association Luzuletum alpinopilosae from the Central Alps).