Rīga, Latvia, 5–7 October 2016
Ida Jākobsone, Ināra Kantāne, Sanita Zute, Inga Jansone and Vadims Bartkevičs
Cereal-based foods have great importance in the compensation of micro- and trace element deficiency, because 50% of the foods produced worldwide are made up of cereal grains. The aim of the research was to determine the concentration of macro-elements and trace elements in different cereals cultivated in Latvia. Various cereals were used in the research: rye (n = 45), barley (n = 54), spring wheat (n = 27), winter wheat (n = 53), triticale (n = 45) and oats (n = 42). Thirteen macro- and trace elements (Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Al, Cu, K, Na, Mn, Fe, Zn, Mg, Ca) were determined in cereal grain samples (n = 266). Macro-elements and trace elements varied significantly (p < 0.01 or p < 0.001). The highest concentrations of macro- and trace elements were found in oats and the lowest in rye. The obtained data will expand the opportunity for food and nutrition scientists to evaluate content of the examined elements in grain products, and dietary consumption (bioavailability) of the examined macro-elements and trace elements.
Māra Bleidere, Sanita Zute and Ida Jākobsone
Incorporation of whole grain, such as hulless barley, as a part of a balanced diet can help reduce the risk of coronary heart diseases, diabetes and specific cancers, and provide other health benefits as well. The objectives of this study were to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of grains of hulless barley genotypes from the Latvian spring barley programme. Field experiments were carried out in 2010-2011 at the State Stende Cereal Breeding Institute. Grain samples of 29 hulless spring barley breeding lines were analysed for grain physical traits (1000 kernel weight, test weight), macronutrients (crude protein, starch, β -glucans), and micronutrients (total phenolic content, DPPH antiradical scavenging activity and α-tocopherol content). The variation of physical traits and macronutrients was mainly determined by genotype (ω2 = 32-62%) and year (η2 = 8-42%) and to a lesser extent by interaction of factors. The difference between hulless genotypes, as indicated the coefficient of variation, was rather high for all micronutrients (V% = 13.4-25.6). Significant (P < 0.05) positive correlation was detected between radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content (r = 0.519) and starch content (r = 0.530). The best hulless breeding lines ‘1185’ and ‘IC 360’ (variety ‘Kornelija’ submitted for DUS and VCU tests) were selected for future usage in clinical investigations.
Ida Jākobsone, Sanita Zute, Māra Bleidere, Ināra Kantāne and Vadims Bartkevičs
The aim of the study was to determine concentrations of 13 macro and trace elements in different barley genotypes depending on the year of growth (2011, 2012, and 2013) and agricultural practice (conventional/organic). Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, and Al concentrations were determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and K, Na, Zn, Cu, Ca, Mg, Mn, and Fe concentrations by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Statistically different concentrations of Cr, Cu, and Zn occurred among genotypes; for Ca, Mn, and Fe concentrations between barley grains, grown conventionally and organically; for Cr and Ni concentrations between hulled and hull-less grain and for Cd, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Al, K, and Na concentrations among the study years. Concentrations of potentially hazardous elements were low (Cd < 0.005–0.027, Pb 0.013–0.066, Cr 0.111–0.327, Ni 0.161–1.264, Cu 2.8–4.7 and Al 1.62–6.09 mg·kg−1). Barley products can provide necessary macro and trace elements, especially of Mn, Mg, Fe, and Zn (7.8–16.1; 1024–1249; 29.2–52.9, and 20.5–33.7 mg·kg−1, respectively).
Vita Šterna, Sanita Zute and Ida Jākobsone
Cereals, including barley, have been recognised as functional foods that provide beneficial effect on the health of the consumer and decrease the risk of various diseases. The aim of investigation was to determine the grain composition of barley varieties and perspective breeding lines bred in Latvia and to evaluate its functional ingredients. The results of analysis showed that protein content among varieties ranged from 106.6-146.8 g·kg-1, total dietary fibre 187.4-208.2 g·kg-1, β-glucans 42.8 g-49.4 g·kg-1, and amount of α-tocopherol 6.03-8.93 mg·kg-1. The sum of essential amino acids in barley grain samples was from 32.90 g·kg-1 to 38.71 g·kg-1. All varieties of hulled and hulless barley grain were found to be sources of protein with high biological value. Comparison of barley varieties bred in Latvia suggests that variety ‘Kornelija’ outperforms others in protein, dietary fibre and micronutrient content.
Māra Bleidere, Sanita Zute, Linda Brunava, Natalija Bobere and Ida Jākobsone
The aim of the study was to evaluate the yield and grain quality (1000 kernel weight, test weight, crude protein, starch, β-glucans, total phenolic content, antiradical scavenging activity and α-tocopherol content) variation of three hulless spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes under different levels of N, in relation to weather characteristics. The field experiments were carried out at the State Stende Cereal Breeding Institute. Three hulless barley genotypes ‘Kornelija’; ‘ST 1165’; ST 1185’ were studied during two years (2011 and 2012) using three levels of nitrogen (N80; N80+40; N80+80) by split application at the end of the tillering stage. The effects of genotype, N treatment and genotype by N treatment interaction contribute the variation in yield and grain quality traits for hulless barley genotypes. There were considerable differences between crop years in response of hulless genotypes to top-dressing N, with significantly (P < 0.05) higher grain yield, 1000 kernel weight, test weight, starch and β-glucans in the growing season of 2012, when rainfall was optimal at the tillering and stem-elongation growth stages. In 2012, a significant (P < 0.05) response to top-dressing N was recorded for grain yield and 1000 kernel weight (at rate N120), crude protein, starch and β-glucans (at rate N160). The maximum values of total phenolic content, antiradical scavenging activity (in 2011) and -tocopherol content (in 2012) were obtained with application of 160 kg N ha-1. Hulless line ‘1185’ gave the highest grain yield, starch, α-tocopherol content and radical scavenging activity, but variety ‘Kornelija’ formed significantly higher TKW, crude protein and β-glucans content.
Māra Bleidere, Regīna Timbare, Natalija Bobere, Madara Paklone, Ida Jākobsone and Sanita Zute
The objectives of the study were to investigate the variability of oat (Avena sativa L.) grain physical traits and chemical composition and to determine relationships between traits. Field experiments including five hulled oat genotypes were carried out at the State Stende Cereal Breeding Institute for two seasons during 2010-2011. Variation of traits was mainly determined by genotype (ω2 = 53 - 88%), with the min/max values for 1000 kernel weight 32.4/36.5 g, test weight 470.0/507.9 g·L-1, hull content 215.4/265.6 g·kg-1, crude protein 110.0/124.9 g·kg-1, starch 456.9/483.0 g·kg-1, β-glucans 28.1/36.6 g·kg-1 and crude fat 46.2/60.0 g·kg-1. Oat variety ‘Arta’ had the highest test weight (507 g·L-1) and contents of crude protein (124.9 g·kg-1), β-glucans (36.5 g·kg-1), α-tocopherol (7.8 mg·kg-1), average crude fat (55.5 g·kg-1) and total phenolics (113.9 mg gallic acid equivalents/GAE 100 g-1 DM) in the grain. Expression of traits significantly depended on meteorological conditions in the specific year. In both years of investigation there were significant (p < 0.05) positive correlations between contents of β-glucans and crude fat, and negative correlation of β-glucans with starch content, total phenolics and antiradical scavenging activity.
Ylle Tamm, Inga Jansone, Sanita Zute and Ida Jakobsone
The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic and environmental variation of yield and food quality characteristics (protein, starch, β-glucan and husk content, test weight and thousand grain weight) of covered and hulless barley genotypes in organic management conditions. Two different field experiments were carried out. In the first experiment, hulless barley genotypes 'Kornelija', 'Irbe', '1165', '1185' and the covered varieties 'Ansis' and 'Maali' were studied in two locations in Latvia and in one location in Estonia during 2014. 'Ansis', ‘Kornelija', '1165' and '1185' were included in the second experiment carried out at Stende during three sequential years (2011-2013). The effect of genotype, environment (location and year) and co-effect of these factors contributed significantly to the variation in yield and grain quality traits of the barley genotypes. As a result of experimental treatments grain yield and quality traits varied by all tested factors. There were considerable differences in impact of studied sources of variation. Grain yield was influenced more by environmental factors than by genotype. Impact of genotype was highest for husk content and test weight. Integral evaluation method was carried out for comparison of barley genotypes to identify the best ones by the lowest deviation from the desired value. The covered barley variety 'Maali' showed good adaptation to different environmental conditions, having good yield, β-glucan content and high thousand grain weight. The line '1165' and variety 'Kornelija' showed best results among hulless barley varieties
Natālija Bobere, Antons Podjava, Laila Meija and Ida Jākobsone
Cereal alkylresorcinols (ARs) are a group of phenolic lipids mainly found in the outer parts of grains of rye and wheat. They have been suggested for use as selective biomarkers for intake of whole grain and bran products of these cereals. Consumption of whole grains and whole grain products has been associated with reduced risk of developing chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes type 2, obesity and some types of cancer. In this article a sensitive and rapid method of High Performance Liquid Chromatography with UV detection for quantitative determination of ARs in the cereals grown in Latvia is described. Instrument detection limits (IDL) were determined for C17:0, C19:0 and C21:0 homologues (coefficient of variation < 3%). According to the results of these studies, ARs were found in rye (87.1-112.0 mg/100 g), wheat (24.0-40.2 mg/100 g), triticale (32.1-74.4 mg/100 g), and in small amounts in barley (2.2-3.7 mg/100 g), but not in oats.
Māra Bleidere, Zaiga Jansone, Ilze Grunte and Ida Jakobsone
Differences in biochemical composition in dehulled and pearled grain samples affected by the various degrees of pearling were studied for spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Twelve covered spring barley and two hulless genotypes were examined. Commercial samples of pearled barley were included for comparison. Covered barley grain samples were pearled using a small-scale barley pearler to obtain dehulled and pearled barley grain products with pearling percentage of 12% and 30%, respectively. Significant differences were observed in the chemical composition between dehulled grain and pearled grain. As the outer layers of the covered grain were removed to a greater degree by pearling, crude protein content, crude ash, total phenolic concentration and radical scavenging activity in the pearled grain significantly decreased (p < 0.001), while starch concentration increased, without changes in the β-glucans concentration. The concentration of phenolic compounds in the dehulled barley grain samples were 1.30 to 1.61 times higher than for pearled grains. There was a significant (p < 0.01) correlation determined among values of dehulled and pearled grain of different barley genotypes in crude protein, starch, and β-glucan content, but no relationship was found in total phenolic content and radical scavenging activity.