Methylentetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzymatic component of the folate cycle, converting 5,10-methylentetrahydrofolate into 5-methylentetrahydrofolate. Severe MTHFR deficiency is a rare recessive disease leading to major hyperhomocysteinemia, homocystinuria, and progressive neurological distress within the two first decades of life.
We present the case of a young, 21 years old female patient who was admitted and treated in Clinic of Pneumology Tirgu Mures for a posterobasal left pneumonia without favourable radiologic evolution under antibiotic and symptomatic treatment. Thoracotomy was recommended in order to elucidate the diagnosis. The histopatological examination revealed the zone of pulmonary infarction. After 12 weeks from surgical intervention, the patient was admitted in Department of Neurology for stroke attack. The complex laboratory investigations reveal deficiency of methylentrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) caused by a genetic mutation.
Chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) is a severe progressive disease associated with high morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis and correct treatment improve the symptoms, quality of life and survival in COPD. Exacerbations of the disease are acute events that cause worsening of COPD symptoms (dyspnea, cough and/or sputum) and may require modification of stable COPD therapy. COPD exacerbations add inflammation, damage the quality of life, deteriorate the lung function, increase mortality and associate high socio-economic costs. Accurate early prediction of exacerbation and mortality risk facilitates patient selection upon risk, in order to provide appropriately targeted early treatment. The risk of having frequent exacerbations is clearly demonstrated by recognized studies in patients with specific criteria: previous exacerbation in the last year, decrease in FEV1s, increase in the score of St. George Questionnaire (life quality decline), high levels of several inflammatory biomarkers, such as neutrophils, C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, pro-calcitonin, eosinophils, IL-6, IL-8, chemokine ligand 18 (CCL-18/PARC), surfactant protein D (SP-D). Simultaneously elevated levels of CRP, fibrinogen and leukocyte count in COPD patients were associated with an increased risk for exacerbations. At the same time, elevated levels of the three biomarkers are associated with an increased risk of major comorbidities in COPD. Biomarker detection may be an additional tool for assessment and management of COPD comorbidities. Detection of pathologic levels of inflammatory biomarkers improves the ability to predict the risk mortality in COPD alongside with BODE index (BMI, obstruction in lung function, dyspnea scale, 6-minute walk test) and may provide a targeted treatment.
Hereby, we report a case of severe multi-lobular pneumococcal pneumonia with gangrene requiring pneumonectomy and accompanying septic shock that developed 1 day after a live-attenuated measles-mumps-rubella vaccination in a 58-year old kindergarten teacher.
Obesity is a disease with severe health consequences and increased risk of mortality. The most commonly used criteria to assess the presence and the severity of obesity are body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio and the presence of the health conditions caused or worsened by obesity. Worldwide obesity has more than doubled in the last 4 decades. Obesity is the second of the leading preventable causes of death worldwide (after smoking). Obesity has a plurifactorial pathogenesis. The central perturbation consists in the imbalance between calories intake and calories consumption (by inappropriate diet and sedentary lifestyle). Identification of all the ethiological factors is important for treatment and prophylaxis. Weight loss benefits are multiple and important: improvement in glicemic control and in plasma lipid levels, blood presure control, obstructiv sleep apneea reduction, improvement in management of daily activities and profesional performances, increase quality of life, reduction in mortality. Overweight or obese patient will complete a diagnostic and a treatment program. Treatment of obesity claims a targeted multidimensional therapy: weight and lifestyle management, diet, sustained physical activity in daily life, exercise, decrease life stressors, smoking cessation, drug therapy, bariatric surgery psichological, familial and social suport. Weight loss program must be carefully planned, adapted to the patient’s abilities and comorbidities and supervised by a nutritionist and a physiotherapist.
Aim: Evaluation of the contribution of general practitioners to the early diagnosis of tuberculosis in the studied period. Analysis of cases not diagnosed as active TB, from those suspected by the general practitioner and the real cases with respiratory lesions.
Material and methods: We conducted an observational epidemiologic study aiming at evaluating the diagnosis of pulmonary TB at the level of primary care medicine.
Results: The difference between conformed TB patients that have been referred with the suspicion of TB and those without suspicion is significant (p <0.0001), and the risk of disease estimated by OR was 21.54. More than half of the patients (139), had positive microscopic examination and culturing, representing 62.61%. In 10.36% microscopic examination was positive and culturing was negative (13 patients). Negative microscopic examination and positive culturing were detected in 5.86% of the patients. The majority of suspected/confirmed new patients were living in urban environments. The urban/rural ratio was 1.27. The reasons why the general practitioner suspected tuberculosis, in the order of frequency, were the following: cough/dry cough, sweating/nocturnal sweating, fever/persisting fever. Among the TB types, we noted the large percentage of patients with infiltrating, nodular tuberculosis confined to the volume of one pulmonary segment (30.78%), and 19.87% of the cases were multicavity tuberculosis; also, we noted the presence of caseous tuberculosis with moderate volumes of infiltrates, confined to a pulmonary lobe (18.27%).
Conclusion: Early diagnosis of tuberculosis in the primary healthcare network is a continuous challenge for the general practitioner.
Objectives: To describe tobacco smoking habits, attitudes, second-hand smoke exposure, and training in cessation counselling at the University of Medicine Pharmacy, Sciences and Technology of Târgu-Mureș (UMPSTTM), as baseline data for the first Romanian university to implement a Smoke Free University Project.
Methods: A cross-sectional survey was administered in 2014 among dental students at UMPSTTM to explore their smoking habits, attitudes toward smoking and tobacco control policies, exposure to second-hand smoke, interest in quitting, and their knowledge about cessation counselling. We used core questions of the Global Health Professions Student Survey (GHPSS) and added specific items related to the Smoke Free University Project. Data were analysed by SPSS v22 software. We compared our results with those of the GHPSS Survey.
Results: 581 dental students, 73.1% of the target population (n=795), completed the questionnaire. 38.7% were current smokers. Approximately 1 in 5 (22.6%) current smokers admitted smoking inside university buildings, although 80.7% were aware of the smoking ban. 44.2% of current smokers plan to quit smoking. Nearly half of the students (48.9%) were exposed to secondhand smoke in their current homes, 78.1% in public places and 33.3% inside the university buildings. Only 21.0% of all participants received any formal training on how to help future patients quit.
Conclusions: Tobacco use prevalence was higher among future dentists than in the majority of respondents to the GHPSS. Changes in dental school education are needed to promote personal smoking cessation, as well as to educate dentists on how to support their future patients quitting.