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I.S. Florian, G. Ungureanu and C. Berce

Abstract

Primary brain tumors consist are a heterogenic group of malignancies. Gliomas represent subtypes which include all tumors arising from glial cells. The risk factors for gliomas are until today unclear. The aim of this study was to summarize all possible connections between suspected risk factors and glial brain tumors.

Open access

C. Abrudan, I.S. Florian, A. Baritchii, O. Soritau, S. Dreve, C. Tomuleasa and B. Petrushev

Abstract

Purpose : Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains one of the most devastating diseases known to mankind and affects more than 17,000 patients in the United States alone every year. This malignancy infiltrates the brain early in its course and makes complete neurosurgical resection almost impossible. Recent years have brought significant advances in tumor biology. Many cancers, including gliomas, appear to be supported by cells with stemlike properties. Nanoparticles are excellent candidates to serve as delivery vectors of drugs or biologically active molecules because of their unique chemical and physical properties that result in specific transportation and deposition of such agents in specific organs and tissues..

In the current study we have investigated the in vitro action of nanostructural systems (temozolomide encapsulated in chitosan and polymer nanostructures) on high-grade gliomaderived cancer stem cells (CSCs), with the intention of developing a new therapy to treat specific brain tumors with increased efficacy and minimal toxicity. In vitro cytotoxicity and apoptosis measurements indicated that the drug/vector combination facilitated the ability of the alkylating drug TMZ to alter the resistance of these cancer stem cells, suggesting a new chemotherapy strategy even for patients diagnosed with inoperable or recurrent malignant gliomas

Methods : At the National Institute for R & D of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies form Cluj Napoca were synthesized three types of nanostructures chitosan-TMZ, TMZ-chitosan-PEG (polyethylene glycol), TMZ-chitosan-PPG (polypropylene glycol). Three type of cell lines (Glioma-derived stem, HFL and HUVEC) were treated with the 3 types of nanostructures and the survival rate of the cells was compare to standard therapy (TMZ).

Results : The results showed a reduction in the rate of survival of the tumor cells. Cell proliferation assays clearly demonstrate the differences betweenconventional chemotherapy (TMZ) and temozolomide encapsulated in chitosan and polymer nanostructures.

Conclusion: Nanostructures like chitosan, PEG, PPG are useful as vectors for drugs transport. Despite combined therapy (surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy), currently median patient survival is reduced. The key to improving life expectancy could be an effective therapy targeted, customized for each case. An increasingly important role will be new methods of treatment such as immunotherapy, gene therapy or nanotherapy.

Open access

Goga Cristina, Brinzaniuc Klara, Florian I.S. and Rodriguez Mena R.

Abstract

The fiber dissection technique involves peeling away white matter fiber tracts of the brain to display its three-dimensional anatomic arrangement. The intricate three-dimensional configuration and structure of the internal capsule (IC) is not well defined. By using the fiber dissection technique, our aim was to expose and study the IC to achieve a clearer conception of its configuration and relationships with neighboring white matter fibers and central nuclei. The lateral and medial aspects of the temporal lobes of twenty, previously frozen, formalin-fixed human brains were dissected under the operating microscope using the fiber dissection technique.

The details of the three-dimensional arrangement of the fibers within the IC were studied and a comprehensive understanding of their relations was achieved. The white matter fiber dissection provides an enhanced perspective of the intricate architecture of the internal structure of brain. This enhanced understanding of intrinsic brain anatomy, particularly of functional highly relevant fiber systems such as the internal capsule, is essential for performing modern neurosurgical procedures.

Open access

C. Lucan, Laura-Ancuta Pop, A. Florian, Valentina Pileczki, B. Petrushev, Delia Dima, Ioana Frinc, Ioana Berindan-Neagoe, A. Irimie, C. Berce, I.-S. Florian, Anca Bojan and C. Tomuleasa

Abstract

From an oncological perspective, the second most common malignancies in children are brain tumors. Despite the recent therapeutic breakthroughs in this field, concerning surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy alike, some cases still have poor outcomes in curability. This is especially the case in patients with high-risk histological types of tumors, and those suffering from residual, remitting and disseminated diseases. Due to the unique neuroanatomical emplacement of brain tumors and their aggressive infiltrative behavior, their total removal remains a demanding task. This can be perceived in the high rates of failure treatment and disease recurrence. Furthermore, the adjacent healthy brain tissue is inevitably damaged in the surgical process of effectively removing these tumors. Thus, stem cell transplantation may be a viable solution for the clinical management of these malignancies, as proven by various recent breakthroughs. In the current concise review, we present the role of next generation sequencing in HLA typing for stem cell transplantation in primary CNS pediatric malignancies.