Birds as the Feeders of Ticks (Acari, Ixodida) in Megalopolis of Kyiv. Nebogatkin, I. V. - Data about ticks parasitizing on birds in the city of Kyiv were summarized. 117 birds and 27 nests were examined. Ticks were found on six species collecting food on the ground level: Great Tit (Parus major), White Wagtail (Motacilla alba), Rook (Corvus frugilegus), blackbird (Turdus merula), and Nuthatch (Sitta europaea). 56 Ixodidae specimens of four species from two genera were collected from the birds and their nests: Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus, 1758); I. arboricola Schulze et Schlottke, 1930; I. lividus (Koch, 1844), Haemaphysalis concinna Koch, 1844. Th e role of birds as feeders of all developmental stages of ticks not only increases under conditions of urban landscape, but also becomes leading in the places with low population of small mammals. Ectoparasites of birds of the other taxonomic groups along with the ticks can play an important role in maintaining the circulation of pathogens of various aetiologies in the urban landscapes.
This study presents the results of content analysis of published works on ixodid ticks in urban conditions in order to determine the species diversity, the vectors of research interests at various stages. Information about ticks in the cities up to the 1980s is incidental, to the point of exclusive, after this point there is targeted research in urban landscapes. There are 106 or 15 % of hard ticks of the world fauna registered in the urban territory, 26 species or 3.7 % being the most abundant. Of the urban hard tick species, 23 (88.5 %) can attack humans, and 12 species are the most adapted to the urban landscape: Ixodes ricinus, I. persulcatus, Dermacentor reticulatus, D. marginatus, I. pavlovskyi, I. scapularis (dammini), Amblyomma cajennense, Haemaphysalis longicornis, I. hexagonus, Hyalomma marginatum, Am. americanum, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. It was determined that the most likely causes of the growing number of publications on ixodids urban landscapes are: global accelerating urbanization, the development of recreational areas, the development of green tourism, the growth of the prestige of outdoor recreation, the creation of new, especially of the landscape parks and a tendency to preserve the native landscape in the cities, a significant increase in the density of populations of common species of hard ticks adapted to living in urban environment. The vectors of further work in urban landscapes will be directed to exact planning of monitoring studies of ixodids and associated tick-borne infections.
Expansion of Rhipicephalus rossicus (Jakimov et Kohl-Jakimova, 1911) to the North, due to all its developmental stages have wide range of feeders (from amphibians to mammals) in the new man-made environmental conditions in the steppe and wood-and-steppe of Ukraine and the warming of climate (especially warm winters), is observed. The northern boundary of R. rossicus distribution lies in Vinnytsya, Kyiv, Poltava and Sumy Regions. R. bursa (Canestrini et Fanzago, 1878) and R. sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) occur only on the shores of the Black Sea and Sea of Azov (including the Crimea). Outbreak localities of R. sanguineus are in Kerch Peninsula (Crimea) and in the Dnieper floodplain. Both R. bursa and R. sanguineus are invasive species.