J. Pipiková, I. Papajová, J. Šoltys, I. Schusterová, D. Kočišová and A. Toháthyová
The occurrence of parasitic infections among the children, dogs and its association with soil contamination in two villages with different hygiene level standards were analysed. Infections were present in both examined localities, but in the village with higher living standard, a better personal and communal hygiene level and better dogs care a lower occurrence of parasitic germs in soil was detected. High prevalence of protozoa and helminths was observed not only within canine population but also in children throughout the year in the village with lower hygiene and socio-economic standard. We have identified up to 12 taxa of parasites in 127 collected dogs’ excrements and mean prevalence was 71.65 %. The most frequent were eggs of family Ancylostomatidae and Ascaris spp., followed by Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Giardia duodenalis cysts, Isospora spp. oocysts, eggs of Capillaria aerophila, Trichuris vulpis, Taenia type eggs, Dipylidium caninum, oocysts of Sarcocystis spp. and larvae of Angiostrongylus vasorum. The soil samples collected near dwellings were highly contaminated. Two thirds of samples contained eggs for the most part of family Ancylostomatidae as well as genera Ascaris and Toxocara. Among the kids population helminth ova were present in 53.17 % of stool samples, where the eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Hymenolepis diminuta and cysts of G. duodenalis were the most frequent. In contrast, parasitic diseases were not seen in children population living in the locality with common hygiene standard.
J. Bystrianska, I. Papajová, J. Šoltys and N. Sasáková
The aim of this study was to monitor the occurrence of the propagative stages of intestinal endoparasites in dog excrements collected within the close proximity of sandpits in an urban environment (Košice, Slovakia) and to determine the level of sandpits contamination with soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). A total of 201 dog faecal samples were examined for the presence of helminth eggs with 10.95 % of the samples being positive. In faeces the most prevalent eggs were those of Toxocara canis (7.46 %). The contamination of sand with STH eggs in 84 sandpits was also investigated. Toxocara spp. eggs were found in 21.43 % of the sandpits. The eggs from the family Ancylostomatidae and Toxascaris leonina were also present. Taenia type eggs and Trichuris sp. eggs occurred less frequently. In some samples, not only monoinfection but also co-infection with eggs of 2‒3 helminth species were detected. In conclusion, the environmental contamination of sandpits with STHs eggs might pose a significant threat to the public health.
The objective of this study was to determine the possibility of soil contamination with propagative stages of intestinal endoparasites at different public places (public parks, playgrounds, sandpits, sidewalks, road sides). In a one-year-study, totally 578 dog’s faecal samples from 8 towns (Košice, Trebišov, Veľké Kapušany, Prešov, Snina, Levoča, Zvolen and Trenčín) and 3 villages (Dlhé Stráže, Dravce, Valaliky) were examined for the presence of parasitic germs. 29.9 % of faecal samples were positive. Eight different species of intestinal parasites with following incidence were detected: Toxocara canis (11.9 %), Trichuris vulpis (8.5 %), Ancylostomatidae (8.1 %), Taenia spp. (4.0 %), Toxascaris leonina (3.1 %), Capillaria spp. (1.0 %), Dipylidium caninum (0.2 %) and Coccidia oocysts (0.2 %). Additionally 285 sandpits were examined. Sand samples were collected from Košice (136), Zvolen (38), Trenčín (36), Prešov (30), Veľké Kapušany (24), Snina (15), and village Valaliky (6). The parasitic eggs occurence in the sandpits was as follows: Toxocara spp. (11.8 %), Ancylostomatidae (1.1 %), Taenia type (0.7 %) and Trichuris spp. (0.4 %). The occurrence of Toxocara spp. varied between the urban and rural environments. The highest number of Toxocara spp. was found in village Valaliky (33.3 %) whereas cities showed lesser prevalence (Prešov — 10 %, Košice — 7.4 %, Trenčín — 5.6 %, Zvolen — 5.3 %, Veľké Kapušany — 4.2 %). The epidemiological aspects and health risk factors are also discussed.
Two experiments were carried out to assess the efficacy of different chemicals (azoxystrobin, fosthiazate, metham-sodium) and of the chitinolytic fungus Aphanocladium album (isolate MX-95), that could be alternatives to methyl bromide, against the soil borne pathogen Pyrenochaeta lycopersici and the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita on tomato in a plastic house in southern Italy. In the first trial, the treatments were azoxystrobin (1.25 l a.i. /ha), fosthiazate (1.5 l a.i. /ha) and biological control agent Aphanocladium album isolate MX-95 (2.5 l/plot at 2×107 CFU/ml; plot surface 96 m2). In the second experiment, treatments were metham-sodium (1000 l c.p./ha) and A. album (5 l/plot at 1×107 CFU/ml). In both trials, chemicals and the fungus were applied by via sub-irrigation. Satisfactory control of the corky root and the root-knot nematode attack and a significant yield increase were obtained by application of azoxystrobin, fosthiazate and metham-sodium. A significant reduction of M. incognita soil population density occurred in plots treated with A. album. Also, high positive correlations were found between the symptoms caused on tomato roots by M. incognita and P. lycopersici.
E. Szabová, P. Juriš, M. Miterpáková, D. Antolová, I. Papajová and H. Šefčíková
Dogs serve as the vectors of serious parasitic diseases with a zoonotic character. In a one-year-study, we collected and examined 752 faeces of dogs. In these faecal samples, 11 different species of intestinal endoparasites were detected, as follows: Toxocara spp. eggs (21.9 %), eggs from the family Ancylostomatidae (18.4 %), coccidia oocysts (10.4 %), eggs of Trichuris spp. (10.0 %), Toxascaris leonina (7.3 %), Capillaria spp. (5.9 %), Taenia type eggs (3.2 %) and Giardia spp. cysts (1.6 %). Echinococcus multilocularis was detected in one sample. Toxocara spp. eggs were dominant in all dog categories, but in hunting dogs they occurred at the highest rate (45.1 %). Faecal samples of dogs from rural ecosystems showed 66.0 % prevalence of intestinal helminths. Presence of Toxocara spp. eggs was found in 25.0 % of sand samples.
J. Kachnič, N. Sasáková, I. Papajová, K. Veszelits Laktičová, R. Hromada, J. Harkabus, S. Ondrašovičová and J. Papaj
The study was conducted to investigate the microbiological and parasitical risk related to the disposal of animal manure to soil by storage of raw pig slurry at temperatures 4 °C, 20 °C and 42 °C for 115 days. Plate counts of Salmonella typhimurium and number of devitalized non-embryonated model Ascaris suum eggs were determined on days 0, 7, 12, 22, 32, 40, 55, 90 and 115 of storage. At the same intervals level of selected physico-chemical parameters were determined. Microbiological examination showed that S. typhimurium survived in the slurry for less than 115 days at 4 °C and less than 90 days at 20 °C and 42 °C. Devitalization of A. suum eggs increased with temperature and time of storage, but complete devitalization was not achieved even after 115 days at 42 °C. Physico-chemical parameters showed changes related to decomposition processes, but did not allow us to draw definite conclusion regarding their influence on devitalization of pathogens. The results indicate potential risk to human food chain that can be prevented by strict observation of legislative provisions and appropriate treatment of animal manure.
A. Dudlová, P. Juriš, P. Jarčuška, L. Čisláková, I. Papajová and V. Krčméry
The occurrence of developmental stages of endoparasite germs (cysts, oocysts, protozoa, and helminth eggs) as an indirect detection factor of endoparasitoses circulation in the environment, was examined in raw municipal wastewater, sludge and biologically cleaned waste water. Examination of municipal wastewater and sludge from five monitored wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in east Slovakia, from various fractions of municipal wastewater, confirmed 35.87 % positivity of samples for the endoparasitic germs. Among of all analysed samples 11.09 % were protozoan oo(cysts) and 20.87 % were helminth eggs. 3.91 % of samples showed positivity to both the helminth eggs and protozoan oo(cysts). In the raw wastewater the protozoa comprised of Giardia spp. (1.08 %) and Entamoeba spp. (1.08 %). The helminth eggs primarily consisted of Ascaris spp. (4.35 %) and strongyle-type eggs (3.26 %). No germs of protozoa or helminths were found in the treated wastewater. However, the highest presence of the germs was found in drained stabilised sludge. The average number of oo(cysts)/kg was 2.86±0.24 and the average number of helminth eggs/kg was 5.77±0.09. In all kinds of sludge, obtained during the process of wastewater treatment, there were protozoan (Giardia spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Entamoeba spp.) and helminths eggs (Ascaris spp., Trichuris spp., Taenia spp., Hymenolepis spp., or strongyle-type eggs) presented. In drained (condensed) stabilised sludge the eggs of Capillaria spp. and Toxocara spp. were also detected. From the epidemiological aspect the sewage sludge, due to high concentration of protozoal oo(cysts) or helminth eggs, represents a significant epidemiological risk for the endoparasitoses dissemination.
T. D’Addabbo, I. Papajová, N. Sasanelli, V. Radicci and M. Renčo
Suppressiveness of soil amendments with different rates of composted biowaste materials, olive pomace, municipal green wastes, sewage sludge and spent mushroom substrate, was evaluated against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita on tomato in potting mixtures. Soil amendments were applied at 0, 10, 25, 50 and 100 g kg−1 soil, according to a randomized block design with five replications for each treatment. Sixty days after tomato transplanting, nematode population density on plant roots and in soil and root gall infestation were assessed on each root system, and plant top and root weight were also recorded. Soil pH, dry and organic matter content, total and ammoniacal nitrogen were analyzed at the same time. Olive pomace-based composts resulted in the highest nematode suppression (73–97 %, according to the rate) and significantly reduced gall formation on tomato roots. Olive-waste compost affected positively tomato growth only in combination with sheep wool wastes, but it caused phytotoxicity when mixed with chicken manure and urea. Soil amendments with composted mushroom substrate also provided a consistent nematode suppression and a significant increase of plant growth, whereas composted municipal green wastes were more suppressive and positively affected tomato growth when combined with sewage sludge. Soil chemical parameters were scarcely affected by compost amendments, as organic matter was significantly increased only by the olive pomace-derived composts and nitrogen content only at the highest rate of the five composts. Data from the experiment confirmed the potential of compost amendments for sustainable management of root-knot nematodes both in field and greenhouse container media, though their technical effectiveness and economic convenience are strictly dependent on a correct proportion and local availability of raw materials used in the composting process.
P. Rudohradská, M. Halánová, P. Ravaszová, M. Goldová, A. Valenčáková, M. Halán, I. Papajová, A. Pohorencová, J. Valko, L. Čisláková and P. Juriš
The number of parasites followed the rapid growing of human population worldwide, not only in developing but also in developed countries. Many of them are diagnosed in children and adolescents. The occurrence of selected intestinal endoparasites in children coming from areas with low hygienic and socioeconomic status was studied. Out of 81 faecal samples examined, 46 (56.8 %) were positive for presence of intestinal parasites. From helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides was found to be the leading parasite (24.7 %), followed by Trichuris trichiura (17.3 %). Tapeworm Taenia spp. eggs were detected in 4.9 % of examined children. From protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium spp. was observed in 36 children (44.4 %) and Giardia intestinalis in 20 children (24.7 %). The occurrence of these epidemiologically low risky parasites in Roma children population suggests low hygienic standard in the Roma settlements.
M. Renčo, N. Sasanelli, I. Papajová and L. Maistrello
Recently, tannins have been reported for their nematicidal activity against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica both in vitro and in pot experiments in addition to a biocidal effect on a wide range of fungi, bacteria and yeasts. However, no information is available on the effect of these polyphenols on plant parasitic cyst nematodes. Therefore, an in vitro and a pot experiments on potato were undertaken to investigate the nematicidal activity of tannin aqueous solutions at different concentrations on the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis. In the in vitro experiment different tannin concentrations in a geometric scale (from 0.32 to 20.48 g/l) were tested for their effect on the egg hatch of the nematode. All tested tannin concentrations were effective to reduce egg viability from 56 to 87%, in comparison to the untreated control. In the pot experiment, tannins, as aqueous solutions at rates of 100, 250 and 450 g/m2, were applied to soil at two different application times (at sowing and at sowing and two weeks later). All tested doses were effective to reduce the number of cyst/100 g soil, eggs and juveniles/g soil and reproduction rate in comparison to untreated control. The number of eggs and juveniles/cyst was not influenced by the different applied rates of tannins.