Intraurban Near-Water Areas and Their Role in Distribution of Ticks (Acari, Ixodidae) in Megapolis the Example of Kyiv
In 2002-2009, we studied 12 islands within the city of Kyiv, and found four indigenous species of ticks (Dermacentor reticulatus Fabricius, 1794; Ixodes ricinus Linnaeus, 1758; I. apronophorus Schulze, 1924; Rhipicephalus rossicus Jakimov et Kohl-Jakimova, 1911) and one invasive species (Hyalomma marginatum Koch, 1844). For A-E-gradient, established by man's impact degree, we revealed atypical distribution of species: their majority is noted in two pole areas - where the man impact is maximum and minimum. The investigated near-water areas are a kind of survival areas and sources of ixodides diversity in megalopolis.
Distribution of the Tick Haemaphysalis Punctata (Acari, Ixodidae) in Ukraine
The northern boundary of H. punctata range was studied. This boundary of its native range (where this species is common and its mass reproductions are periodically recorded) was found to go through Odesa, Mykolaiv, Kherson, Zaporizhia, Donetsk and Lugansk oblasts. Clarified that the boundary of its temporary range (where this species occurs periodically and is dependent on human factors totally) was clarified to go through Volyn, Rivne, Zhytomyr, Kyiv, Chernihiv and Sumy regions. The range of H. punctata is fully subjected to anthropogenic factors in areas where this species dwelt in historically recent times only, and in ancestral areas of distribution such factors affects only dynamics and indices of abundance.
Seasonal Changes in Activity, Sex Composition and Areal of the Tick Ixodes ricinus (Acari, Ixodida) in the Landscape-Geographical Regions of Ukraine
Data on seasonal activity of adults, nymphs and larvae of the sheep tick Ixodes ricinus Linnaeus are presented based on examination of our own collections for the period from 1977 to 2001 and archival materials for the period from 1953 to 2000, as well as data on changes in its natural habitat that now covers the whole territory of Ukraine. The period of activity in I. ricinus imagoes becomes longer from north to south and from west to east. In Ukrainian populations of I. ricinus, females slightly dominate (on average 52.44 ± 0.55%). The seasonal differences in the sex ratio are as follows: males are more abundant in springtime, females - in autumn. Significantly larger numbers of females (on average 52-60%) are registered on population peaks, and larger numbers of males - on their decrease.
Distribution of Ticks from of the Genus Dermacentor (Acari, Ixodidae) in Ukraine
The northern border of present range of the tick species Dermacentor marginatus is determined on the territory of Ukraine in Volyn, Rivne, Khmelnytsky, Zhytomyr, Kyiv, Cherkasy, Poltava and Sumy oblasts. D. reticulatus species was revealed to be adapted for living in urbanized areas as parasitizing domestic and stray animals, small mammals. It also inhabits shores of artificial reservoirs and occurs in the steppe zone, except for arid areas. D. reticulatus preimaginal stages are found for the first time on birds (Anas platyrhynchos, Sturnus vulgaris, Turdus merula, T. viscivorus).
Distribution of the Ixodid Tick Hyalomma Marginatum (Ixodoidea, Ixodidae) in Ukraine
The Northern boundary of the current distribution range of Hyalomma marginatum Koch in Ukraine that passes along the North of Odesa, Mykolayiv, Kirovograd, Dnipropetrovsk, Zaporizhia, Donetsk and Luhansk Oblasts has been specified. The natural habitat is mapped according to different possibilities for mass reproduction. Regular findings of H. marginatum inhabited unusual places may contribute to the spreading of diseases dangerous to humans and animals to new areas, where the latter may be treated as a biological threat of large epidemics and epizootics. Natural habitat of the Ixodidae species has been mapped in consideration of feeding types and the ability of it hosts to travel. Only the areas where all stages are regularly found were included what corroborates Ixodidae species establishing in new areas.
Birds as the Feeders of Ticks (Acari, Ixodida) in Megalopolis of Kyiv. Nebogatkin, I. V. - Data about ticks parasitizing on birds in the city of Kyiv were summarized. 117 birds and 27 nests were examined. Ticks were found on six species collecting food on the ground level: Great Tit (Parus major), White Wagtail (Motacilla alba), Rook (Corvus frugilegus), blackbird (Turdus merula), and Nuthatch (Sitta europaea). 56 Ixodidae specimens of four species from two genera were collected from the birds and their nests: Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus, 1758); I. arboricola Schulze et Schlottke, 1930; I. lividus (Koch, 1844), Haemaphysalis concinna Koch, 1844. Th e role of birds as feeders of all developmental stages of ticks not only increases under conditions of urban landscape, but also becomes leading in the places with low population of small mammals. Ectoparasites of birds of the other taxonomic groups along with the ticks can play an important role in maintaining the circulation of pathogens of various aetiologies in the urban landscapes.
This study presents the results of content analysis of published works on ixodid ticks in urban conditions in order to determine the species diversity, the vectors of research interests at various stages. Information about ticks in the cities up to the 1980s is incidental, to the point of exclusive, after this point there is targeted research in urban landscapes. There are 106 or 15 % of hard ticks of the world fauna registered in the urban territory, 26 species or 3.7 % being the most abundant. Of the urban hard tick species, 23 (88.5 %) can attack humans, and 12 species are the most adapted to the urban landscape: Ixodes ricinus, I. persulcatus, Dermacentor reticulatus, D. marginatus, I. pavlovskyi, I. scapularis (dammini), Amblyomma cajennense, Haemaphysalis longicornis, I. hexagonus, Hyalomma marginatum, Am. americanum, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. It was determined that the most likely causes of the growing number of publications on ixodids urban landscapes are: global accelerating urbanization, the development of recreational areas, the development of green tourism, the growth of the prestige of outdoor recreation, the creation of new, especially of the landscape parks and a tendency to preserve the native landscape in the cities, a significant increase in the density of populations of common species of hard ticks adapted to living in urban environment. The vectors of further work in urban landscapes will be directed to exact planning of monitoring studies of ixodids and associated tick-borne infections.
Expansion of Rhipicephalus rossicus (Jakimov et Kohl-Jakimova, 1911) to the North, due to all its developmental stages have wide range of feeders (from amphibians to mammals) in the new man-made environmental conditions in the steppe and wood-and-steppe of Ukraine and the warming of climate (especially warm winters), is observed. The northern boundary of R. rossicus distribution lies in Vinnytsya, Kyiv, Poltava and Sumy Regions. R. bursa (Canestrini et Fanzago, 1878) and R. sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) occur only on the shores of the Black Sea and Sea of Azov (including the Crimea). Outbreak localities of R. sanguineus are in Kerch Peninsula (Crimea) and in the Dnieper floodplain. Both R. bursa and R. sanguineus are invasive species.