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Open access

I. Langrová, I. Jankovská, J. Vadlejch, M. Libra, A. Lytvynets and K. Makovcová

Abstract

The present work describing both laboratory and field experiments was performed to assess the effects of desiccation and UV radiation on the development and survival of free-living stages of equine cyathostomins.

Cyathostomin larvae in horse faeces did not develop to the infective stage when faecal humidity levels dropped below 23 %, nonetheless solitary preinfective larvae were still recovered after 151 days (humidity 19.5 %). The development to infective stage after remoistening occurred for the last time after 54 days following desiccation.

Preinfective stages are susceptible to the effects of the direct desiccation stage. The preinfective larvae were rapidly killed within one minute, the cyathostomin eggs within 5 hours. The numerous normal mobile infective larvae were encountered after 35 days of the desiccated period. The preinfective stage of cyathostomins also showed very little tolerance to direct sun radiation: most eggs were killed by the exposure within 3 hours and the preinfective larvae within 1 hour. The survival of infective larvae was, on the other hand, unaffected by sun radiation after 7 days (P < 0.05). However, desiccated infective larvae were then found to be susceptible to UV radiation, resulting in total mortalities after 5 days.

Open access

Š. Scháňková, I. Langrová, I. Jankovská, J. Vadlejch, Z. Čadková and D. Křivská

Abstract

Various laboratory animals – mice (Mus musculus) of six strains, rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus), rats (Rattus norvegicus), and Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) were experimentally infected with larvae of small strongyles (Cyathostominae), obtained from horse faeces and cultured to the infective larval stage L3. The attempt to transfer cyathostome larvae was aimed at developing a model for the investigation of different aspects of the life cycle and biology of these nematodes in the laboratory. Some animals were immunized (hydrocortisone) for the duration of the study. The laboratory animals were orally infected with 2–10 thousand sheathed or ex-sheathed L3 larvae of mixed cyathostome species. All attempts to inoculate any animal failed; there was no larval development in the experimental rodents and it can be stated that none of the investigated animals may serve as a suitable model host for horse nematodes of the subfamily Cyathostominae.

Open access

M. Borkovcová, I. Langrová and A. Totková

Abstract

During the years 2002–2008 endoparasitoses of fallow deer Dama dama were monitored in White Carpathians (Czech Republic). Samples of excrements were tested by flotation and Baermann method and occasionally grallochs were dissected in order to detect gastrointestinal nematods (GIN) and lungworms (LW). In the same time we cooperated with gamekeepers, who carried out several differently successful measurements to lower the endoparasites’ prevalence. These measurements included pasture management, shooting management, additional-feeding management and drug treatment, all during the whole period of monitoring. Prevalence of endoparasites had descending trend, while intensity of infection had ascending trend. Total maximal prevalence (GIN+LW) in herd was 60 % (2004), in 2008, it fell down to 20 %. Annual dynamic of parasites was always highest in autumn months. Spectrum of detected parasites consisted only of species of the order Strongylida. Monitoring proved, that breeding management strategy can significantly influence parasitocenoses and help animals to regain health.

Open access

S. Nechybová, I. Langrová and E. Tůmová

Abstract

The parasitic status in the coypus (nutrias) Myocastor coypus, both farm-bred or free-living on river banks in the Czech Republic, was determined. Faecal samples were collected from 200 coypus originating from 11 farms (farm-bred animals) and from 20 individuals living at 14 natural localities (feral animals). Faeces were examined for nematode eggs and coccidian oocysts using the McMaster method. The evaluation of faeces from farm-bred coypus indicated infection with the following parasites: Trichuris sp., Strongyloides sp., Trichostrongylus sp., Eimeria seidelli, Eimeria nutriae, Eimeria coypi, and Eimeria myopotami. Free-living feral rodents harboured Eimeria nutriae, E. coypi, Strongyloides sp. and in one case also Trichuris sp. An additional visceral examination of 20 coypus originating from five farms revealed two nematode species in the gastrointestinal tracts, namely Trichuris myocastoris and Strongyloides myopotami. The study indicated that feral coypus are far less parasitized than their captive counterparts.

Open access

V. Tolstoy, A. Lytvynets and I. Langrová

Abstract

To enhance the effect of treatment method of Trichinellosis with mebendazole, lipid peroxidation processes (LPP) in blood of Wistar rats experimentally infected with Trichinella spiralis were investigated. In accordance with health condition of infected rats treated with mebendazole and combination of mebendazole and AKβ vitamin complex, dynamics of the main values of the LPP (such as: activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in erythrocytes and malonic dialdehyde (MDA) concentration in blood serum) were analyzed. It was concluded that mebendazole amplifies the LPP in rat’s blood. Additional administrations of the AKβ vitamin complex allow improvement of LPP parameters, raising compensatory-adaptive reactions of the host organism and reducing the rate of the experimental animal’s mortality.

Open access

I. Jankovská, V. Sloup, J. Száková, J. Magdálek, B. Horáková and I. Langrová

Abstract

We evaluated Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn concentrations in the bone, muscle, testes, intestine, liver, kidneys and tapeworm parasites Hymenolepis diminuta of rats from four groups: 12 animals given zinc lactate (120 mg/rat and week) in feed mixture (M0 group); six animals given zinc lactate (120 mg/rat and week) in feed mixture and infected with tapeworms (MT group); six control animals fed a standard mixture of ST-1 for rats (00 group); and six control animals fed a standard mixture of ST-1 for rats and infected with tapeworms (0T group). The experiment was conducted over a six-week period. In our study, tapeworm presence decreased element concentrations in the majority of rat tissues. Tapeworms accumulated higher levels of zinc and manganese than did the majority of host tissues; however, they accumulated very little iron and copper in comparison to the host tissues. Zinc overdosing increased manganese concentrations in rat tissues; zinc overdosing also seemed to protect the liver from absorption of Fe by tapeworms.

Open access

I.A. Kyriánová, J. Drnek, I. Langrová, P. Peřinková and S. Nechybová

Abstract

Parasite prevalence was investigated in giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) housed in six major Czech zoological gardens: Zoo Ostrava, Zoo Dvůr Králové nad Labem, Zoo Liberec, Zoo Olomouc, Zoo Praha, and Zoo Plzeň. In autumn 2012 and in spring 2013, 120 faecal samples from 21 animals were examined using the McMaster egg counting technique. Propagative stages of three parasite groups were discovered, namely eggs of the nematodes of the order Strongylida (prevalence 25.8%), whipworms Trichuris spp. (prevalence 25%), and oocysts of the unicellular coccidia of the genus Eimeria (prevalence 1.7%). The results indicate that captive giraffes in the Czech zoos are not substantially affected by parasitic infection.

Open access

A. Lytvynets, I. Langrová, J. Lachout, J. Vadlejch, A. Fučíková and I. Jankovská

Abstract

The effects of ivermectin were studied in laboratory rats naturally infected with the pinworm Syphacia muris. Ivermectin was administered over four 5-days periods in drinking water; the ivermectin dose was 2.5 mg/kg of body weight per day. All the rats were weighed every five days and their ova production was monitored by a cellophane — tape test. Every fifth day six males and six females from the experimental group were euthanized and examined for adult pinworms and larvae. The rats’ health condition, behaviour and consumption of food and water were monitored every day. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of orally administered ivermectin as a treatment against adult pinworms and their larvae in laboratory rat colonies.

Open access

I. Jankovska, V. Bejcek, I. Langrova, P. Válek, J. Vadlejch and Z. Čadková

Abstract

According to the newest data (2010), the state of the black grouse is in decline in the Czech Republic. One of the reasons for this decline is the parasitic infection. The examination of 170 faecal specimens disclosed 6 species of parasites. Helminth eggs were found in 50 % of the examined faecal specimens. The following eggs were found: cestode Hymenolepis spp. (28 %), with the highest prevalence (84 %) and mean intensity (1076 EPG) in spring; nematodes Trichostrongylus tenuis (24 %), and Ascaridia compar (3 %) with a mean intensity of 11 and 12 EPG, respectively. Coccidia infections were present in 1 % of faecal specimens only in spring, with an intensity of 35 OPG. However, in the following year, Eimeria lyruri was the most abundant parasite in the faecal specimens. During the second year of our research, the prevalence of E. lyruri was 28 %; the highest prevalence (67 %) was in summer with an intensity of up to 9433 OPG.

Open access

I.A. Kyriánová, J. Vadlejch and I. Langrová

Abstract

The prevalence and intensity of infection of the lungworm Muellerius capillaris in dairy and young goats were evaluated at one organic farm in the Czech Republic. A total of 605 faecal samples were collected from rectum of thirty selected dairy and thirty young goats; each individual was examined monthly throughout a year. Data were statistically evaluated to verify the existence of differences in values of larvae count per gram (LPG) in dairy and young goats. Further, dairy goats were divided into three groups depending on the number of lactations and the differences in LPG values between groups were statistically evaluated. The species M. capillaris was the only lung parasite identified during our study with an overall prevalence 87.2 % and 93.1 % for young goats and dairy goats, respectively. The difference in the larvae count between young and dairy goats was not statistically significant. The comparison of larvae counts in goat groups depending on the number of lactation showed significant differences between dairy goats on the first and second lactation and between goats on the second and third lactation (P < 0.05) contrary to larvae count between goats on the first and third lactation.