The goals of this paper are: to estimate the carbon emission reduction on energy efficiency measurements in a laboratory building in Transilvania University from Braşov, Romania, in accordance with the European Directive 2009/28/EC and to estimate the contribution of renewable energy to energy efficiency of the building using the performance indicator named Renewable Energy Ratio - RER. We will detail the methods of calculation for CO2 emissions and we will present the results for gas condensing boiler, and ground source heat pump for the laboratory building. The results show that conventional energy efficiency technologies and renewable energy technologies can be used to decrease CO2 emissions in buildings by 20–30% on average and up to over 40% for some building types and locations. The contribution of renewable energy is between 40 and 50 % from total energy use and only for heating is 58%. This value could rise to 0.63 if we apply to electricity produced by photovoltaic panels.
The goals of this paper are to estimate some parameters – indoor temperature and ventilation rate - necessary to determine the heat load demand for ventilation in the amphitheatre named ‘A TALPOSI’-Faculty of Buildings Engineering- with a number of at the most 120 occupants. The study presented in this paper is made when in the amphitheatre it is necessary to assure a comfortable temperature by a permanent functioning of the heating system. The number of air exchanges necessary in the amphitheatre in the natural ventilation process, more exactly, to assure a minimum air exchanges, is imposed by the requirements for the assurance of physiologic comfort in the amphitheatre for the time interval when it is occupied by students. The inner air debit should cover the harmful emissions in the amphitheatre. By the help of these calculated (measured) parameters we have calculated the heat load for ventilation. In the end, with the data obtained from calculations and measurements we find ourselves in the situation of establishing the size of the heat exchanger corresponding to the room, to heat the fresh air taken from outside and send it inside the amphitheatre. The measurements are made with the TESTO apparatus of the faculty. The minimum requirements to assure the thermal comfort are: to achieve a minimum internal temperature θi (t) higher than (or equal to) the normal indoor temperature associated to this space and to assure the air quality, the air exchange rate. The authors want to highlight by this study the necessity and importance of the control on the number of air exchanges in rooms with a high number of occupants and overall, the control of the fresh air debits. The fact that the focus is more and more on heat loss cuts in rooms by tightening closing elements gives birth to the necessity of control of the ventilation system with effects on the consumption of mechanical energy.
The lifetime of glass reinforced plastic pipes is 50 years. Extensive use of this type of pipe in its various applications, led to investigate their behavior in land that anthropogenic or natural causes, shows the different values of pH to neutral. The paper presents experimental results conducted on three samples of a PN SN10000 DN150 PN10 pipe buried in three different types of terrain: neutral, acidic, basic. They were subjected to axial load, measuring the force applied deformation force function. On the basis of the calculation formulas determined rigidity of the pipeline, the deformation speed of 50 mm / min. This concludes the type of land affects the rigidity of the pipe so its length of life decreases to that provided by suppliers in order to be taken compensatory measures in this regard such as choosing a higher class of pressure and stiffness pipeline than those arising discounted. This will allow for long-term value (50 years) in the mechanical characteristics sufficient for safe operation.
It is known the fact that buildings become one of the major energy consumers. In order to ensure thermal comfort in buildings, more and more complex heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems have been used over time, which are currently large primary energy consumers. At the same time, today, the main source of energy production is still the burning of fossil fuels, which is the process leading to significant emissions of greenhouse gases. That is why the current European Union directives enforce both reducing buildings energy consumption with 20% before 2020 and using an amount of 20% of renewable energy. One of the heating systems that best respond to the need to reduce the energy consumption of buildings is the low-temperature radiant heating system., This is the reason why the present paper presents a research project that concerns the use of TABS heating/cooling systems that harness the renewable geothermal energy of the ground provided by a ground-air heat pump in Romania. The experimental research building is one of the research laboratories of the Research, Development, Innovation Institut of Transilvania University of Brasov-Romania In the first cold season of activity for heating the experimental building (2017-2018), the system provided a thermal enegy of 48 MWh, covering 48 % from the amount of the heating load. During the monitored period, the average COP for heating of the heat pump was 4,6. The research will continue to take place, results regarding the economy for cooling the building in the warm season and for the year’s transition periods being expected to follow.