The Total Antibiotics test is a microbial inhibition test which has been recently introduced for the detection of antibiotics in meat. The aim of this study was to determine whether it would be suitable for the detection of coccidiostats in poultry meat. A comparison with the Premi®Test was assessed also for the suitability of the detection of coccidiostats in poultry meat. A selection of poultry meat samples of different organ parts were assessed with 14 samples from Slovakian farms that had previously been tested for coccidiostats by the Veterinary and Food Institute in Košice. In addition, another 8 samples from varied Slovakian supermarkets such as Lidl, Billa and Tesco with samples of chicken or duck meat, were tested. Each prepared sample was added to the Total Antibiotics kit tubes and incubated. The samples from all sources showed a mixture of positive and negative results for the detection of coccidiostats.
For the Premi®Test, the samples used the same extraction procedure as the Total Antibiotics, placed in Premi®Test kit tubes and incubated. The Premi®Test demonstrated a mixture of positive and negative results, as similar to the Total Antibiotics for coccidiostats in the poultry farm samples. However, the Premi Test revealed many more negative results for the supermarket sources compared to the Total Antibiotics. Therefore, based on the total number of positive results, we concluded that Total Antibiotics is more sensitive for the detection of coccidiostats in poultry meat, but depending on the source of the samples, both Total Antibiotics and Premi®Test had either similar or opposite results for the detection of coccidiostats.
Undesirable substances enter the organism of animals mostly via feed, water or veterinary medicines and their residues pass subsequently into the products of animal origin. In dairy cows, sheep and goats these residues are eliminated particularly in milk. Milk intended for human consumption must comply with safety criteria also with respect to residues of antibiotics. The aim of this study was to determine the presence or absence of antibiotic residues in the milk using the tests Milchtest and Premi®Test. While the Milchtest was developed for the determination of antibiotic residues in cow, sheep and goat milk, the Premi®Test is intended for the determination of antibiotic residues in meat juice, liver, kidneys, fish, eggs and in the urine of animals treated with antibiotics. As examined matrices, we used 45 samples of raw cow’s milk collected at 3 agricultural farms and 10 samples of milk offered to consumers at grocery stores. When using the Milchtest, 8 samples tested positive and 10 provided dubious results while testing with the Premi®Test showed that only 6 samples were positive for antibiotics. Comparison of the results confirmed a higher detection sensitivity of Milchtest reflected in higher numbers of positive samples and the detection of dubious results in samples of raw cow’s milk. However, it should be noted that even the Premi®Test, although not intended preferably for the determination of antibiotics in milk, can be used, if needed, for the preliminary screening of antibiotic residues in such a matrix.
The objective of this study was to use the “Screening test for antibiotic residues” (STAR) as a broad-spectrum detection method for antibiotic residues in poultry meat. The STAR method is a microbiological inhibition assay (a five plate test) where the development of inhibition zones (IZs) indicates the presence of antibiotic residues in meat samples. By using the STAR method, in a total of 13 poultry products providing 18 meat samples (14 muscle and 4 skin) and 18 corresponding juice samples, 11 out of the 18 samples were positive for containing antibiotic residues. Based on muscle alone (which is the matrix validated for use in the STAR method), 6 of the 14 muscle samples were positive for antibiotic residues. The STAR method as a screening technique proves advantageous as it is relatively easy to perform and of a low cost. Furthermore, the STAR method not only indicates the presence or absence of antibacterial substances, but simultaneously, a positive sample gives an indication of the antibiotic family present due to the use of five different bacterial test organisms. Families of antibiotics pre-identified due to positive samples in the results of this study include aminoglycosides (one out of 18), beta-lactams and sulphonamides (6 out of 18), and macrolides (5 out of 18). Such pre-identification of the antimicrobial families allows for a targeted confirmatory analysis. However, one could argue that the STAR method is laborious and time consuming. Overall, given the potential for false positive/negative results, further confirmatory method analysis of the samples must be performed to ensure that the results and conclusions drawn here are true.
Eggs belong to the most frequently consumed products of animal origin worldwide, and therefore the safety of eggs is a substantiated issue. Conventional poultry rearing involves the use of antimicrobials added to their feed or potable water particularly for disease treatment, however, in some countries also for the prevention of diseases, promotion of growth and better utilisation of the feed. Thus, effective control of residues of such substances in eggs is very important for the protection of the public health. The aim of this study was to detect the potential presence of antimicrobial residues in fresh hen eggs using commercially available rapid screening methods (Premi®Test and EXP Ampulle test) and compare the results of both of these tests. We examined 22 samples randomly selected from among 66 samples purchased in 11 European countries. We respected the procedures as supplied by the manufacturers of the tests together with their respective test kits. The examination of eggs by the Premi®Test did not detect the presence of antimicrobial residues in the samples, while the EXP Ampulle test provided 8 positive and 6 dubious results. Our results allowed us to conclude that the EXP Ampulle appears to be more sensitive and allows one to carry out more effective control of the presence of antimicrobial residues in hen eggs intended for human consumption.
M. Goldová, Š. Tóth, V. Letková, J. Mojžišová, I. Kožarová and M. Pomfy
Histochemical methods for the detection and diagnosis of the developmental stages of the canine tapeworm, from the genus Taenia found in the heart and lungs of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) hunted in Eastern Slovakia, is presented here. Detailed morphology of cysticerci (Cysticercus spp.), based on microscopic and histochemical analysis is described. For confirmation and demonstration of PAS-positive substances in the body of parasitic tissue (tegument and mesenchyme) the McManus — PAS method was used. The histochemical method according to Van Kossa was very effective for confirmation of calcareous corpuscles, which are one of the most important histological markers of cestode tissues (larva or adult).