We evaluated Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn concentrations in the bone, muscle, testes, intestine, liver, kidneys and tapeworm parasites Hymenolepis diminuta of rats from four groups: 12 animals given zinc lactate (120 mg/rat and week) in feed mixture (M0 group); six animals given zinc lactate (120 mg/rat and week) in feed mixture and infected with tapeworms (MT group); six control animals fed a standard mixture of ST-1 for rats (00 group); and six control animals fed a standard mixture of ST-1 for rats and infected with tapeworms (0T group). The experiment was conducted over a six-week period. In our study, tapeworm presence decreased element concentrations in the majority of rat tissues. Tapeworms accumulated higher levels of zinc and manganese than did the majority of host tissues; however, they accumulated very little iron and copper in comparison to the host tissues. Zinc overdosing increased manganese concentrations in rat tissues; zinc overdosing also seemed to protect the liver from absorption of Fe by tapeworms.
We determined the prevalence of primarily zoonotic parasites in the small intestines of 40 (20 males and 20 females) red foxes living near human dwellings. The total prevalence of parasite infection was 77.5 % (31/40); the prevalence was 37.5 % (15/40) for Toxocara canis and 35 % (14/40) for Toxascaris leonina. The mean intensity infection was 3 and 11 helminths for T. canis and T. leonina, respectively. The prevalence of other intestinal helminths and mean infection intensity in this study are given: Echinococcus multilocularis 40 % (16/40) with 1000 individuals, Mesocestoides spp. 40 % (16/40) with 8 individuals, Uncinaria stenocephala 10 % (4/40) with 8 individuals, and Taenia pisiformis 10 % (4/40) with 1 individual. With regards to prevalence and intensity of infection, as well as prevalence of individual parasites, there were no significant differences (P≥0.05) between male and female red foxes.
According to the newest data (2010), the state of the black grouse is in decline in the Czech Republic. One of the reasons for this decline is the parasitic infection. The examination of 170 faecal specimens disclosed 6 species of parasites. Helminth eggs were found in 50 % of the examined faecal specimens. The following eggs were found: cestode Hymenolepis spp. (28 %), with the highest prevalence (84 %) and mean intensity (1076 EPG) in spring; nematodes Trichostrongylus tenuis (24 %), and Ascaridia compar (3 %) with a mean intensity of 11 and 12 EPG, respectively. Coccidia infections were present in 1 % of faecal specimens only in spring, with an intensity of 35 OPG. However, in the following year, Eimeria lyruri was the most abundant parasite in the faecal specimens. During the second year of our research, the prevalence of E. lyruri was 28 %; the highest prevalence (67 %) was in summer with an intensity of up to 9433 OPG.
Zinc, as an essential metal, is necessary for the correct function of an organism. It is involved in biochemical processes that affect the immune response of an organism, and it acts as a neuromodulator in the excitatory synapses of the brain. Zinc is also applied in response to stressful stimuli. Zinc is an essential factor of gene expression and is important, at the cellular level, in maintaining the integrity of the cell walls. It influences organism ageing. Zinc is relatively abundant in nature, and it exists in a mineral form and rarely as a pure element. Zinc is used widely in industry and agriculture. In industry, it is utilized mainly in the processing of other metals as protection against corrosion. In agriculture, it is used in fertilizers and chemicals to produce pesticides. In certain areas affected by human activities, its concentrations increase, and large quantities of this metal can get into the food supply. In this paper, we focus on zinc metabolism and homeostasis, with an emphasis placed on the biological function of zinc. This study also deals with zinc deficiency and its effect on health. We also touch on the excessive intake of zinc and its toxicity.
The experiment was conducted on 18 Wistar rats during a six-week period; 12 animals were given zinc lactate (120 mg/rat and week) in feed mixture and 6 control animals were fed a standard mixture for rats (ST-1). Sixteen biochemical parameters were measured from blood (serum) samples: total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), urea (UREA), glucose (GLU), triacylglycerols (TAG), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), cholesterol (CHOL), creatinine (CREAT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), uric acid (UA), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and trace elements such as Fe and Zn. When compared to the control group, we found that rats fed zinc lactate had higher concentrations of GLU, UA, UREA, Fe, Mg, Ca, TAG, TP, ALB, and ALP in the blood serum. Contrarily, the concentrations of AST, NEFA, CHOL, CREAT, P, and Zn were higher in the blood serum of control rats. Statistically significant differences between rats fed Zn and the control were found only in the concentrations of GLU, AST, ALP, UA, and P.
Species of the genus Echinococcus (Cestoda; Taeniidae) are minute tapeworms of carnivores. Their larvae are known as hydatids (metacestode), which proliferate asexually in various mammals. Like the majority of cestodes, Echinococcus spp. require two different host species to complete their life cycle. Definitive hosts harbouring the adult cestodes in the small intestine are exclusively carnivores of the Canidae and Felidae families. A wide range of mammal species including humans is susceptible to infection by the metacestode of Echinococcus spp., which develops in their viscera. The disease, caused by species of the genus Echinococcus, is called echinococcosis, and it is one of the most dangerous zoonoses in the world. The traditional species Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis are agents of significant diseases due to the high number of cases and the wide geographical species range. The taxonomy of the genus is controversial; in the current state of ongoing complex revisions, the agent of cystic echinococcosis E. granulosus sensu lato is divided into five species (E. granulosus sensu stricto, E. felidis, E. equinus, E. ortleppi, E. canadensis), in addition to the agents of alveolar echinococcosis (E. multilocularis, E. shiquicus) and polycystic/unicystic echinococcosis (E. vogeli, E. oligarthrus). Here we provide an overview of the current situation, which continues to develop.
The aim of this work was to determine how two cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulating plants in feed affect a consumer organism (Rattus norvegicus var. alba). Using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), Cd concentrations were analyzed in Wistar rat (Rattus norvegicus var. alba) tissues. Rats were fed the Cd and Zn hyperaccumulating plants Noccaea caerulescens or Arabidopsis halleri. Rats given Arabidopsis halleri took in 4 times as much Cd as did rats fed Noccaea caerulescens. However, the muscle, intestinal, kidney, spleen, testicular, bone and liver tissues of rats fed A.halleri had 7.3, 5.6, 5.5, 3.5, 3.1, 2.5 and 2.3 times higher Cd concentrations, respectively, than did tissues of rats fed N. caerulescens. A. halleri burdened the muscle, small intestinal, and kidney tissues with Cd to a greater extent than did N. caerulescens. However, the spleen, testes, bone and liver were significantly more burdened with Cd by N. caerulescens. In both experimental groups (rats given N. caerulescens as well as those given A. halleri), the highest Cd concentrations were found (in descending order) in the kidneys > liver > small intestine > spleen > testes > bone > and muscle. This information is vital in situations where, for example, livestock can graze on these plants or when other animals and humans accidentally consume these plants.
Various laboratory animals – mice (Mus musculus) of six strains, rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus), rats (Rattus norvegicus), and Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) were experimentally infected with larvae of small strongyles (Cyathostominae), obtained from horse faeces and cultured to the infective larval stage L3. The attempt to transfer cyathostome larvae was aimed at developing a model for the investigation of different aspects of the life cycle and biology of these nematodes in the laboratory. Some animals were immunized (hydrocortisone) for the duration of the study. The laboratory animals were orally infected with 2–10 thousand sheathed or ex-sheathed L3 larvae of mixed cyathostome species. All attempts to inoculate any animal failed; there was no larval development in the experimental rodents and it can be stated that none of the investigated animals may serve as a suitable model host for horse nematodes of the subfamily Cyathostominae.
The effects of ivermectin were studied in laboratory rats naturally infected with the pinworm Syphacia muris. Ivermectin was administered over four 5-days periods in drinking water; the ivermectin dose was 2.5 mg/kg of body weight per day. All the rats were weighed every five days and their ova production was monitored by a cellophane — tape test. Every fifth day six males and six females from the experimental group were euthanized and examined for adult pinworms and larvae. The rats’ health condition, behaviour and consumption of food and water were monitored every day. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of orally administered ivermectin as a treatment against adult pinworms and their larvae in laboratory rat colonies.
The present work describing both laboratory and field experiments was performed to assess the effects of desiccation and UV radiation on the development and survival of free-living stages of equine cyathostomins.
Cyathostomin larvae in horse faeces did not develop to the infective stage when faecal humidity levels dropped below 23 %, nonetheless solitary preinfective larvae were still recovered after 151 days (humidity 19.5 %). The development to infective stage after remoistening occurred for the last time after 54 days following desiccation.
Preinfective stages are susceptible to the effects of the direct desiccation stage. The preinfective larvae were rapidly killed within one minute, the cyathostomin eggs within 5 hours. The numerous normal mobile infective larvae were encountered after 35 days of the desiccated period. The preinfective stage of cyathostomins also showed very little tolerance to direct sun radiation: most eggs were killed by the exposure within 3 hours and the preinfective larvae within 1 hour. The survival of infective larvae was, on the other hand, unaffected by sun radiation after 7 days (P < 0.05). However, desiccated infective larvae were then found to be susceptible to UV radiation, resulting in total mortalities after 5 days.