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  • Author: I. Gul x
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Echinopla Cherapunjiensis sp. n. (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from India

Echinopla cherapunjiensis Bharti et Gul, sp. n. is described from India. This represents the second species of genus reported in India, with only Echinopla lineata senilis Mayr, 1862 described earlier from Nicobar Islands. The species distinctly differs from all other known species of this genus by the following combination of characters: globose shape of head, presence of seven teeth on petiolar scale, flat dorsum of mesosoma with promesonotal and mesometanotal sutures obsolete, whole body surface (dorsum) rough due to sinuous sculpture, deep excavations and spiky elevations on head and mesosoma and excavations on gaster.


The absorption coefficient of Bi12TiO20:AlI, Bi12TiO20:AlII, Bi12SiO20:P and Bi12SiO20:Al+P single crystals is measured in the spectral region of Urbach’s rule (1.52 – 2.92 eV) at room temperature. The parameters of electron-phonon interaction, Urbach’s energy and the constants of Urbach’s rule are calculated. The behavior of the acceptors Al3+ and P5+ in Urbach’s rule region has been considered.


Study aim: Several sprint interval training applications with different slope angles in the literature mostly focused on sprint running time and kinematic and dynamic properties of running. There is a lack of comparative studies investigating aerobic and anaerobic power. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the effects of sprint interval training on sloping surfaces on anaerobic and aerobic power.

Material and methods: A total of 34 male recreationally active men aged 20.26 ± 1.68 years and having a BMI of 21.77 ± 1.74 were assigned to one of the five groups as control (CON), uphill training (EXP 1), downhill training (EXP 2), uphill + downhill training (EXP 3) and horizontal running training (EXP 4) groups. Gradually increased sprint interval training was performed on horizontal and sloping surfaces with an angle of 4°. The training period continued for three days a week for eight weeks. The initial and the final aerobic power was measured by an oxygen analyser and anaerobic power was calculated from the results of the Margaria-Kalamen staircase test.

Results: Following the training programme, an increase in aerobic power was found in all training groups (EXP 1 = 20.79%, EXP 2 = 14.95%, EXP 3 = 26.85%, p < 0.01) and EXP 4 = 20.46%) (p < 0.05) in comparison with the CON group (0.12%), but there were no differences among the training groups. However, significant increases in anaerobic power were found in uphill training (4.91%) and uphill + downhill training (8.35%) groups (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: This study showed that all sprint interval studies on horizontal and sloping surfaces have a positive effect on aerobic power, and uphill and combined training are the most effective methods for the improvement of anaerobic power.