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Distribution of the Tick Haemaphysalis Punctata (Acari, Ixodidae) in Ukraine

The northern boundary of H. punctata range was studied. This boundary of its native range (where this species is common and its mass reproductions are periodically recorded) was found to go through Odesa, Mykolaiv, Kherson, Zaporizhia, Donetsk and Lugansk oblasts. Clarified that the boundary of its temporary range (where this species occurs periodically and is dependent on human factors totally) was clarified to go through Volyn, Rivne, Zhytomyr, Kyiv, Chernihiv and Sumy regions. The range of H. punctata is fully subjected to anthropogenic factors in areas where this species dwelt in historically recent times only, and in ancestral areas of distribution such factors affects only dynamics and indices of abundance.

Seasonal Changes in Activity, Sex Composition and Areal of the Tick Ixodes ricinus (Acari, Ixodida) in the Landscape-Geographical Regions of Ukraine

Data on seasonal activity of adults, nymphs and larvae of the sheep tick Ixodes ricinus Linnaeus are presented based on examination of our own collections for the period from 1977 to 2001 and archival materials for the period from 1953 to 2000, as well as data on changes in its natural habitat that now covers the whole territory of Ukraine. The period of activity in I. ricinus imagoes becomes longer from north to south and from west to east. In Ukrainian populations of I. ricinus, females slightly dominate (on average 52.44 ± 0.55%). The seasonal differences in the sex ratio are as follows: males are more abundant in springtime, females - in autumn. Significantly larger numbers of females (on average 52-60%) are registered on population peaks, and larger numbers of males - on their decrease.

Distribution of Ticks from of the Genus Dermacentor (Acari, Ixodidae) in Ukraine

The northern border of present range of the tick species Dermacentor marginatus is determined on the territory of Ukraine in Volyn, Rivne, Khmelnytsky, Zhytomyr, Kyiv, Cherkasy, Poltava and Sumy oblasts. D. reticulatus species was revealed to be adapted for living in urbanized areas as parasitizing domestic and stray animals, small mammals. It also inhabits shores of artificial reservoirs and occurs in the steppe zone, except for arid areas. D. reticulatus preimaginal stages are found for the first time on birds (Anas platyrhynchos, Sturnus vulgaris, Turdus merula, T. viscivorus).

Distribution of the Ixodid Tick Hyalomma Marginatum (Ixodoidea, Ixodidae) in Ukraine

The Northern boundary of the current distribution range of Hyalomma marginatum Koch in Ukraine that passes along the North of Odesa, Mykolayiv, Kirovograd, Dnipropetrovsk, Zaporizhia, Donetsk and Luhansk Oblasts has been specified. The natural habitat is mapped according to different possibilities for mass reproduction. Regular findings of H. marginatum inhabited unusual places may contribute to the spreading of diseases dangerous to humans and animals to new areas, where the latter may be treated as a biological threat of large epidemics and epizootics. Natural habitat of the Ixodidae species has been mapped in consideration of feeding types and the ability of it hosts to travel. Only the areas where all stages are regularly found were included what corroborates Ixodidae species establishing in new areas.

Ethological Aspects of Honeybee Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apidae), Adaptation to Parasitic Mite Varroa Destructor (Mesostigmata, Varroidae) Invasion

Some ethological aspects of A. mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 (Hymenoptera, Apidae), adaptation to parasiting the mite V. destructor Anderson et Trueman (Mesostigmata, Varroidae) are shown. The basic complexes of behaviour reactions, directed on a fight against the parasitic mites of bees brood at the genus Apis are shown, their comparative efficiency under various conditions and evolutional perspective. Possibility of ethological adaptation of honey bee to V. destructor parasiting, direction of selection by this sign and influencing of human on parasitic-host system was discussed. An approach to the selection of bees with the purpose of resistanse to varroosis promoution is proposed.


This study presents the results of content analysis of published works on ixodid ticks in urban conditions in order to determine the species diversity, the vectors of research interests at various stages. Information about ticks in the cities up to the 1980s is incidental, to the point of exclusive, after this point there is targeted research in urban landscapes. There are 106 or 15 % of hard ticks of the world fauna registered in the urban territory, 26 species or 3.7 % being the most abundant. Of the urban hard tick species, 23 (88.5 %) can attack humans, and 12 species are the most adapted to the urban landscape: Ixodes ricinus, I. persulcatus, Dermacentor reticulatus, D. marginatus, I. pavlovskyi, I. scapularis (dammini), Amblyomma cajennense, Haemaphysalis longicornis, I. hexagonus, Hyalomma marginatum, Am. americanum, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. It was determined that the most likely causes of the growing number of publications on ixodids urban landscapes are: global accelerating urbanization, the development of recreational areas, the development of green tourism, the growth of the prestige of outdoor recreation, the creation of new, especially of the landscape parks and a tendency to preserve the native landscape in the cities, a significant increase in the density of populations of common species of hard ticks adapted to living in urban environment. The vectors of further work in urban landscapes will be directed to exact planning of monitoring studies of ixodids and associated tick-borne infections.


The ability of several acaridid species to colonize and feed in diff erent nutritional substrates, such as grain crops, oil seeds, damaged vegetables, mixed fodder, hay and straw from the mangers and litter of livestock keeping places, litter, ambrosia and dead bees from beehive bottoms, is investigated. Species-specifi c diff erences in indices of domination and occurrence, and of Sorensen and Jaccard coeffi cients of similarity of species compositions on diff erent substrates are related not only to the nutritional inequality of these substrates, but also to the mite ability to grind them and to absorb these substrates through intracellular, contact and cavitary digestion using certain hydrolytic enzymes.

Ecological Characteristics of Varroa destructor (Parasitiformes, Varroidae) and Its Environmental Capacity as a Key Factor for Development of Varroosis Panzootia. Akimov I. A., Korzh O. P. - By means of formalized schematic models of relationship with hosts the varroa mite uniqueness as a parasite is shown. The life cycle of this species requires the change of a host species at different stages of their development and physiological states. Thus the mite parasitizes not only a separate bee but a whole hive. The fact that the whole hive but not a single bee dies during varroosis development supports this idea. The impetus for this type of parasitism is the relative constancy of the environment in the hive supported by bees even in winter. Exactly this fact causes high pathogenicity of the varroa for the honey bee and its control complexity.

Expansion of Rhipicephalus rossicus (Jakimov et Kohl-Jakimova, 1911) to the North, due to all its developmental stages have wide range of feeders (from amphibians to mammals) in the new man-made environmental conditions in the steppe and wood-and-steppe of Ukraine and the warming of climate (especially warm winters), is observed. The northern boundary of R. rossicus distribution lies in Vinnytsya, Kyiv, Poltava and Sumy Regions. R. bursa (Canestrini et Fanzago, 1878) and R. sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) occur only on the shores of the Black Sea and Sea of Azov (including the Crimea). Outbreak localities of R. sanguineus are in Kerch Peninsula (Crimea) and in the Dnieper floodplain. Both R. bursa and R. sanguineus are invasive species.