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  • Author: I. A. Akimov x
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Abstract

The ability of several acaridid species to colonize and feed in diff erent nutritional substrates, such as grain crops, oil seeds, damaged vegetables, mixed fodder, hay and straw from the mangers and litter of livestock keeping places, litter, ambrosia and dead bees from beehive bottoms, is investigated. Species-specifi c diff erences in indices of domination and occurrence, and of Sorensen and Jaccard coeffi cients of similarity of species compositions on diff erent substrates are related not only to the nutritional inequality of these substrates, but also to the mite ability to grind them and to absorb these substrates through intracellular, contact and cavitary digestion using certain hydrolytic enzymes.

Ecological Characteristics of Varroa destructor (Parasitiformes, Varroidae) and Its Environmental Capacity as a Key Factor for Development of Varroosis Panzootia. Akimov I. A., Korzh O. P. - By means of formalized schematic models of relationship with hosts the varroa mite uniqueness as a parasite is shown. The life cycle of this species requires the change of a host species at different stages of their development and physiological states. Thus the mite parasitizes not only a separate bee but a whole hive. The fact that the whole hive but not a single bee dies during varroosis development supports this idea. The impetus for this type of parasitism is the relative constancy of the environment in the hive supported by bees even in winter. Exactly this fact causes high pathogenicity of the varroa for the honey bee and its control complexity.

Expansion of Rhipicephalus rossicus (Jakimov et Kohl-Jakimova, 1911) to the North, due to all its developmental stages have wide range of feeders (from amphibians to mammals) in the new man-made environmental conditions in the steppe and wood-and-steppe of Ukraine and the warming of climate (especially warm winters), is observed. The northern boundary of R. rossicus distribution lies in Vinnytsya, Kyiv, Poltava and Sumy Regions. R. bursa (Canestrini et Fanzago, 1878) and R. sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) occur only on the shores of the Black Sea and Sea of Azov (including the Crimea). Outbreak localities of R. sanguineus are in Kerch Peninsula (Crimea) and in the Dnieper floodplain. Both R. bursa and R. sanguineus are invasive species.