Achene slime content in some taxa of Matricaria L. (Asteraceae)
The achenes of Matricaria aurea and two varieties of M. chamomilla (var. chamomilla and var. recutita) have slime cells on the surface and they are characterized by slime envelope formation during hydration. The slime in these taxa is composed of pectins and cellulose. The slime could play important role in the distribution and colonisation of new habitats in Matricaria taxa.
In this study, a report on the genus Matricaria in Turkey is provided based on floristic studies. Previously recorded taxa are compared with new ones from our collections. Four taxa of Matricaria in Turkish flora are recognized: M. aurea, M. chamomilla var. chamomilla, M. chamomilla var. recutita and M. matricarioides. On the other hand, M. chamomilla var. coronata is an erroneous record for the flora of Turkey. Diagnostic morphological characters together with data on phenology, habitat and distribution as well as dichotomous keys for Matricaria taxa are presented. Proportions of various phytogeographical elements of Matricaria taxa in Turkey are provided.
Huseyin Inceer, Nursen Aksu Kalmuk, Kemal Vehbi Imamoglu, Ozge Duman, Sema Hayirlioglu-Ayaz and Gokhan Arslan
In the present study, the micromorphological structure of achene, pappus and style using scanning electron microscope (SEM), stomatal characteristics, anatomy of stem and achene together with chromosome number and nuclear DNA content of the Turkish endemic Crepis macropus Boiss. & Heldr. are provided in order to expand knowledge of its taxonomy. The SEM studies in this species show that dense spiny cells are found on the achene surface, the pappus bristle has 3–5 spikes and the style possesses slender papillae. The stem structure is composed of epidermis, collenchyma, parenchymatous cortex and pith. The species has anomocytic stomata in both the upper and the lower surface of the leaves. The pericarp of the achene is mainly composed of several layers of sclerenchymatous cells. In this species, the chromosome number is 2n = 2x = 8, karyotype consists of two submetacentric and six subtelocentric chromosomes and nuclear DNA content (2Cvalue) is 12.96 pg. These data are presented here for the first time and their taxonomic values are discussed.
Nesrin Colak, Hülya Torun, Jiri Gruz, Miroslav Strnad, Michaela Subrtova, Huseyin Inceer and Faik Ahmet Ayaz
Caucasian blueberry (Vaccinium arctostaphylos L.) and bilberry (V. myrtillus L.), both native to Turkey, were evaluated for their total phenolics (TP) and anthocyanin (TAC) contents. Individual compositions of free phenolic acids and phenolic acids liberated from ester and glycoside forms were analyzed using UPLC-MS/MS. Berry extracts of each species were separated into three different fractions (sugar/acid, polyphenolic and anthocyanin) by solid phase extraction (SPE). The anthocyanin fractions of each species had the highest level of TP and TAC contents and ORAC values. Each species contained 10 phenolic acids representing each fraction, but in different quantities. The phenolic acids liberated from the esters and glycoside forms were caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid. The fractions containing phenolic acids liberated from ester and glycoside forms had a higher antioxidant capacity than that from free phenolic acids. The data suggest that both berries have potential as good dietary sources of phenolic antioxidants.
Faik Ahmet Ayaz, Nesrin Colak, Mujgan Topuz, Petr Tarkowski, Pavel Jaworek, Gerald Seiler and Huseyin Inceer
Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is one of the most popular common major vegetable crops worldwide. This study evaluated the nutritional content of seven commercial eggplant fruits in terms of fatty acid, mineral, sugar, organic acid, amino acid and polyamine contents. The most abundant fatty acid was linoleic acid (range, 39.14-53.81%, ave. 45%), and the most abundant mineral was K (range, 1556.2-3171.6 mg/kg fw, ave. 2331.9). The major organic acid was malic acid (range, 129.87-387.01 mg/g fw, ave. 157.49), and the major sugar was fructose (range, 1242.81- 1379.77 mg/100 g fw, ave. 1350.88). The major polyamine was putrescine (11.54 and 25.70 nmol/g fw, ave. 17.86), and the major amino acid was glutamine (148.4 and 298.75 mg/100 g fw, ave. 219.74). Overall, taking into account the export potential of eggplants, these results may contribute to further studies aiming to improve other nutrient-rich varieties of eggplant in breeding programs.