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Open access

Yi-hai Gu, Xiao Zhu, Jing-yun Li, Jun Zhang, Qing-yuan Zhou, Yue Ma, Chang-qin Hu, Shao-hong Jin and Sheng-hui Cui

Abstract

Objective To identify the risk factors for imipenem resistance development and transmission of clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates.

Methods Thirty-seven imipenem unsusceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates collected from patients in absence of carbapenem treatment were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility test, pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and carbapenem resistant mechanism analysis.

Results Before the collection of imipenem unsusceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, the average time of patients treated with more than one antimicrobial (20.0 ± 9.5 days, n = 16) was significantly longer than those treated with only one antimicrobial (12.6 ± 4.4 days, n = 21; t-test, Welch, t = -2.9004, P < 0.01). And 32 isolates showed resistance to more than 3 classes of antimicrobials. Six PFGE clusters were identified and 26 isolates were grouped into one dominant cluster (C2). An ISpa1328 sequence insertion in oprD was detected in 33 isolates and the function of efflux was observed in all 37 isolates in the presence of a wide spectrum efflux inhibitor.

Conclusions Our data demonstrated that exposure to non-carbapenem drug classes, especially fluoroquinolones and β-lactams, may be important risk factors for the spread of carbapenem resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Open access

Ya-Li Liu, Yao-Zhong Ding, Jun-Fei Dai, Bing Ma, Ji-Jun He, Wei-Min Ma, Jian-Liang Lv, Xiao-Yuan Ma, Yun-Wen Ou, Jun Wang, Yong-Sheng Liu, Hui-Yun Chang, Yong-Lu Wang, Qiang Zhang, Xiang-Tao Liu, Yong-Guang Zhang and Jie Zhang

Abstract

Introduction

The extremely high genetic variation and the continuously emerging variants of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) of Southern African Territory (SAT) serotypes including SAT1, SAT2, and SAT3 make it necessary to develop a new RT-PCR for general use for monitoring viruses based on the updated genome information.

Material and Methods

A FMDV SAT-D8 one-step RT-PCR was established based on the 1D2A2B genes of the SAT serotype viruses with a multiplex primer set. FMDV A, O, C, and Asia 1 serotypes, other vesicular disease viruses, inactivated SAT viruses, and 125 bovine, ovine, caprine and porcine tissue samples collected from the Chinese mainland were included for evaluating the assay.

Results

The new RT-PCR was proven to be specific without cross-reactions with Eurasian FMDV, swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV), Seneca valley virus (SVV), or other common viral pathogens of cattle, sheep, goat, and pig. An around 257 bp-sized amplicon clearly appeared when the inactivated SAT viruses were detected. However, all 125 samples collected from FMDV-susceptible animals from the Chinese mainland which has not known SAT epidemics showed negative results.

Conclusions

A FMDV SAT-D8 one-step RT-PCR is a promising method for primary screening for FMDV SAT serotypes.