Shakespeare’s plays were first adapted in the Chinese cinema in the era of silent motion pictures, such as A Woman Lawyer (from The Merchant of Venice, 1927), and A Spray of Plum Blossoms (from The Two Gentlemen of Verona, 1931). The most recent Chinese adaptations/spinoffs include two 2006 films based on Hamlet. After a brief review of Shakespeare’s history in the Chinese cinema, this study compares the two Chinese Hamlets released in 2006-Feng Xiaogang’s Banquet and Hu Xuehua’s Prince of the Himalayas to illustrate how Chinese filmmakers approach Shakespeare. Both re-invent Shakespeare’s Hamlet story and transfer it to a specific time, culture and landscape. The story of The Banquet takes place in a warring state in China of the 10th century while The Prince is set in pre-Buddhist Tibet. The former as a blockbuster movie in China has gained a financial success albeit being criticised for its commercial aesthetics. The latter, on the other hand, has raised attention amongst academics and critics and won several prizes though not as successful on the movie market. This study examines how the two Chinese Hamlet movies treat Shakespeare’s story in using different filmic strategies of story, character, picture, music and style.
Replant disease refers to the result of monoculture-continuous repetitive planting of congeneric crops or coordinal crops in the same soil for many years. Such disease is recognized as one of the main limiting factors affecting plant growth and production of horticultural plants in many countries. As a result, replant disease in horticultural plants has become a world problem in agriculture and also a bottleneck restricting the sustainable development of agriculture. In general, replant disease results in unfavorable growth of horticultural plants, which is due to allelopathy, autotoxicity, and the imbalance of both soil physical-biochemical traits and soil microflora. An environmentally friendly contribution to this could be bio-controlled by beneficial microorganisms. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, one of soil-inhabiting fungi, can form a symbiotic association in roots to mitigate the negative effects of replant disease in many horticultural plants. Moreover, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi do not produce any environmental pollution in soils and are a potential biological control. The soil fungi could regulate better morphological, physiological and molecular levels in plants to respond to the disease. This review mainly outlined the current knowledge in mycorrhizal mitigation of replant disease in horticultural plants, which appears to be a promising strategy to improve growth of horticultural plants in replant soils.
In this paper, we studied the thermal history of a clay core sample from one leg of a bronze tripod unearthed at Daxinzhuang Site, Shandong, China. The properties of the luminescence signals of quartz depend on the maximum temperature at which the quartz was annealed in the past. We examined the feasibility of measuring the thermoluminescence (TL) sensitivity change of quartz for exploring the firing temperature of archaeological materials. The sensitization factor of the 110°C TL peak (S2/S1) and the ratio of the 210°C TL peak to the 110°C TL peak at different annealing temperatures were utilized to unveil the firing temperature in the clay core sample. The firing temperature of the clay core sample was approximately 700°C–800°C, proving the clay core has been fired. This result proved that the clay core has been fired by human agencies and indicated on the temperature of the clay core in drying and firing given by the foundry workers before the actual casting step.
This study is to investigate the role of the coating of TiO2 nanoparticles deposited on wool fibers against high-intensity ultraviolet B (UVB), ultraviolet A (UVA), and visible light irradiation. The properties of tensile and yellowness and whiteness indices of irradiated TiO2-coated wool fibers are measured. The changes of TiO2-coated wool fibers in optical property, thermal stability, surface morphology, composition, molecular structure, crystallinity, and orientation degree are characterized using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electronic microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques. Experimental results show that the tensile properties of anatase TiO2-coated wool fibers can be degraded under the high-intensity UVB, UVA, and visible light irradiation for a certain time, resulting in the loss of the postyield region of stress–strain curve for wool fibers. The coating of TiO2 nanoparticles makes a certain contribution to the tensile property, yellowness and whiteness indices, thermal stability, and surface morphology of wool fibers against high-intensity UVB, UVA, and visible light irradiation. The high-intensity UVB, UVA, and visible light can result in the photo-oxidation deterioration of the secondary structure of TiO2-coated wool fibers to a more or less degree. Meanwhile, the crystallinity and orientation degree of TiO2 coated wool fibers decrease too.
To examine the perceived impact of international educational experiences and cultural beliefs before and after completing a 1-year Masters of Science in Nursing program.
An exploratory study was conducted among Chinese nurses studying abroad in a private medium-sized university in the United States. The 27-item electronic pre-survey was administered within 1 week of starting the program and the post-survey was administered 1 year later at the completion of the program.
Majority of participants (n = 25) were female, 23–36 years of age. Findings revealed that the perceived impact of international educational experiences assessed at the start of the program was similar to the perceived impact measured at the end of the 1-year program, suggesting that the students learned and experienced what they anticipated. There was a significant impact on cultural beliefs from the start of the program compared with the end of the program suggesting that a 1-year study abroad program does influence cultural beliefs.
Understanding what is important to provide in a study abroad program and providing the educational experiences identified by students as impactful are avenues to help host universities best develop their programs. Findings suggested that the 1-year program can influence foreign students’ cultural beliefs, yet the professional and personal impact of this change warrants further study.
Based on the thoughts of cognitive radar, Fractional Fourier Transform (FrFT) is used to generate a rotatable waveform libraries of Frank coded/Barker coded waveform in this paper. Then, the ambiguity function is used to analyze the delay resolution, Doppler resolution, delay side-lobe level, and Doppler side-lobe level of the waveform libraries and orthogonality of them is also analyzed. Furthermore, we proved theoretically that there is a fixed coordinate transformation between the waveforms of library and its origin waveform. Therefore, the Cramér-Rao low bound (CRLB) of motion parameters can be computed easily using the waveforms of the libraries, which facilitate the subsequent waveform scheduled work. Simulation results show that the library waveforms can reduce delay resolution to satisfy the different situations and can bring significant benefits for delay resolution, orthogonality and reuse interval.
A simple and coumarin-based fluorescence probe has been designed and synthesized with silyl group as recognition group of fluoride ions (F−) in this study. The results showed that the fluorescence intensity of the probe displayed prominent enhancement with addition of F− at 445 nm with incubation of 1 min. There was an excellent linear relationship between fluorescence intensity and fluoride concentration from 0 to 30 μM (0~0.57 ppm), which offered the important condition for the quantitative analysis. In addition, the highly selective response to fluorion, the low detection limit with 28 nM (0.532 ppb), low toxicity and bioimaging afforded an advantage for practical application and detecting fluoride in biological systerms.
China has the largest number of managed honey bee colonies globally, but there is currently no data on viral infection in diseased A. mellifera L. colonies in China. In particular, there is a lack of data on chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) in Chinese honey bee colonies. Consequently, the present study investigated the occurrence and frequency of several widespread honey bee viruses in diseased Chinese apiaries, and we used the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. Described was the relationship between the presence of CBPV and diseased colonies (with at least one of the following symptoms: depopulation, paralysis, dark body colorings and hairless, or a mass of dead bees on the ground surrounding the beehives). Phylogenetic analyses of CBPV were employed. The prevalence of multiple infections of honey bee viruses in diseased Chinese apiaries was 100%, and the prevalence of infections with even five and six viruses were higher than expected. The incidence of CBPV in diseased colonies was significantly higher than that in apparently healthy colonies in Chinese A. mellifera aparies, and CBPV isolates from China can be separated into Chinese-Japanese clade 1 and 2. The results indicate that beekeeping in China may be threatened by colony decline due to the high prevalence of multiple viruses with CBPV.
Oxidative stress plays a role in the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases. It is recognized in overt hypothyroidism while its existence in subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is not well established. The aim of this study was to determine whether there was increased oxidation of lipids and proteins in SCH, and examine their association with lipids and thyroid hormones.
Methods: Male adults (35-59 years) with SCH (n=467) and euthyroid controls (n=190) were studied. Anthropometric measurements, plasma lipids, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), lipid peroxidation products, malondialdehyde (MDA), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and dityrosine concentrations were measured.
Results: Plasma concentrations of MDA were significantly higher (p<0.05) in SCH (8.11±1.39 nmol/mL) compared with euthyroid controls (7.34±1.31 nmol/mL) while AOPP, dityrosine and T-AOC levels were not different. MDA was not associated with TSH (β=-0.019, P=0.759), FT4 (β=-0.062, P=0.323) and FT3 (β=-0.018, P=0.780) in SCH while levels increased with elevated total cholesterol (β=0.229, P=0.001), LDL (β=0.203, P=0.009) and triglycerides (β=0.159, P=0.036) after adjustment for ageand body mass index. T-AOC reduced (β=-0.327, P=0.030) with increased MDA in euthyroid controls and not in SCH (β=-0.068, P=0.349), while levels increased with elevated triglycerides in both groups.
Conclusion: Oxidative stress was increased in subclinical hypothyroidism as evidenced by the elevated lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde, while protein oxidation was absent. Thus, reduction of oxidative stress may be beneficial in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism
Schima superba is a common dominant tree species in evergreen broad-leaved forest in subtropical China. Despite its multiple usages in wood industry, reforestation and traditional Chinese medicine, its genetic diversity is poorly studied. To help studying its genetic diversity and structure in the future, after microsatellite enrichment and screening, we identified 16 microsatellites in S. superba. These markers showed polymorphism in three populations. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 to 32 with a mean of 14. Within populations, the observed and unbiased expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.048 to 0.926 and from 0.048 to 0.949, respectively. The newly developed 16 microsatellites will be useful for investigating the genetic diversity and structure from large scale patterns to fine-scale structures in this species.