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Open access

Shiping He, Hui-Hsuan Chang, Hsiu-Maan Kuo and Ya-Ling Lin

Abstract

Background: IgA1 protease may enhance the bacterial infection in human beings. However, the molecular mechanism of bacterial adherence to eukaryotic cells is unclear.

Objective: Reveal the mechanisms of IgA1 protease-dependent and non-protease bacterial adherence to eukaryotic cells.

Method: Type I and type II IgA1 proteases from iga genes (GenBank DQ683355 for NTHi465, DQ683356 for NTHi500 and DQ683357 for Nm430) were cloned, expressed, and purified. Cellular assays for adherence of IgA1 protease-producing and -non-producing and typable and nontypable strains of H. influenzae to human lung carcinoma cells (A549) were carried out in the presence of human antibodies.

Results: Adherence of protease-producing strains and non-producing strains to human epithelial cells was significantly dependent on the enzyme activity. In addition, human IgG was an inhibitor to IgA1 proteasedependent adherence of H. influenzae strains to human cells. However, IgA1 antibodies were irrelevant to IgA1 protease-dependent adherence.

Conclusion: IgA1 protease was required for adherence of pathogenic bacteria to human epithelial cells in IgA1 protease-producing bacteria, and human IgG inhibits the adherence, but not for IgA1 protease non-producing bacteria.

Open access

Lin Bai,, Yanbo Li and Meng Hui

Abstract

In this paper a novel face recognition algorithm, based on wavelet kernel non-negative matrix factorization (WKNMF), is proposed. By utilizing features from multi-resolution analysis, the nonlinear mapping capability of kernel nonnegative matrix factorization could be improved by the method proposed. The proposed face recognition method combines wavelet kernel non-negative matrix factorization and RBF network. Extensive experimental results on ORL and YALE face database show that the suggested method possesses much stronger analysis capability than the comparative methods. Compared with PCA, non-negative matrix factorization, kernel PCA and independent component analysis, the proposed face recognition method with WKNMF and RBF achieves over 10 % improvement in recognition accuracy.

Open access

Yang Zhou, Hui Wang, Sha-xi Li, Gui-lin Yang and Ying-xia Liu

Abstract

Objectives To investigate the clinical features of tuberculosis (TB)-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) in patients co-infected with HIV/TB or latent infection during highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).

Methods HIV-infected patients treated in the Third People’s Hospital of Shenzhen, China between March 2012 and March 2013 were recruited, and divided into 3 groups: 1) HIV/TB co-infection group (n = 50), 2) HIV/ MTB latent infection group (n = 50), and 3) HIV infection group (n = 50), with 12-month follow-up. Patients in the HIV/TB co-infection group were treated with HAART 2 weeks after TB therapy. Patients were assessed at different time-points.

Results The incidence and mortality rates of TB-IRIS were 40% and 10% in the HIV/TB co-infected patients, and 2% (and no mortality) in the HIV/MTB group. The HIV infected group did not display TB-IRIS or death. About 95% HIV/TB co-infected patients were 20-39 years old when TB-IRIS occurred, and 65% of the patients developed TB-IRIS 2 weeks after HAART. For the co-infection group, those with TB-IRIS (20/20, 100%) had fever, with a significantly higher incidence than those who did not develop TB-IRIS (6.7%, 2/30, P < 0.05). The patients with TB-IRIS in co-infection group displayed markedly higher clinical biochemical markers, acute phase reactants, increased CD4+ cell counts, and 2 log10-decreases of HIV RNA loads, compared with the patients not presenting with TB-IRIS (P < 0.05).

Conclusion HIV/TB co-infected patients presented with a high-risk of developing TB-IRIS during HAART treatment. Early diagnosis and treatment could decrease mortality rates in TB-IRIS.

Open access

Jian Fan, Li Zhang, Qi long Wang and Hui Lin

Abstract

Background: Metastasis is responsible for most cancer-related death, and the metastatic spread of neoplastic cells may be related to the ability of migration and invasion. Chemokine receptor 9 (CCR9) plays an important role in cutaneous melanoma and prostate cancer cells migration and invasion.

Objective: Investigate the specific role of the chemokine-ligand (CCR9-CCL25) axis in the development of nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) metastasis.

Methods: Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR, western-blot, flow cytometry, migration, and invasion assays were used to examine the function of CCR9 in the NSCLC cells.

Results: CCR9 was highly expressed in NSCLC patient cancer tissue. In addition, in vitro migration and invasion studies on human bronchial epithelial cells of the BEAS-2B and human squamous lung cancer cell lines NCI-H157 showed that migration in response to the CCL25 was inhibited by CCR9 antibody.

Conclusion: CCR9 might play an important role in the migration and invasion of the NSCLC cells.

Open access

Hong-Yu Niu, Wan-Hui Ye, Zheng-Feng Wang, Ying Chen, Hong-Lin Cao, Lin-Fang Wu and Zhang-Ming Wang

Abstract

Schima superba is a common dominant tree species in evergreen broad-leaved forest in subtropical China. Despite its multiple usages in wood industry, reforestation and traditional Chinese medicine, its genetic diversity is poorly studied. To help studying its genetic diversity and structure in the future, after microsatellite enrichment and screening, we identified 16 microsatellites in S. superba. These markers showed polymorphism in three populations. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 to 32 with a mean of 14. Within populations, the observed and unbiased expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.048 to 0.926 and from 0.048 to 0.949, respectively. The newly developed 16 microsatellites will be useful for investigating the genetic diversity and structure from large scale patterns to fine-scale structures in this species.

Open access

Dan-Dan Zhang, Pi Luo, Ying Chen, Zheng-Feng Wang, Wan-Hui Ye and Hong-Lin Cao

Abstract

Engelhardia roxburghiana is a common half evergreen tree with a wide distribution in southeast Asia. Despite its ecological and pharmaceutical values, its genetic diversity is poorly studied. Our objective was to develop nuclear microsatellite markers to investigate the level of genetic diversity within and among populations in the future. Using the microsatellite-enriched library and PCR-based screening method, 12 microsatellite markers were developed and showed polymorphism in a population. The number of alleles per locus for these 12 microsatellites ranged from four to 15. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.358 to 0.897 and from 0.369 to 0.886, respectively. The developed microsatellites will be useful for studying genetic diversity and population structure in E. roxburghiana.

Open access

Chia-Hui Chen, Li-Min Lin, Chung-Ho Chen, James R. Geist and Yuk-Kwan Chen

Abstract

Background: The preoperative evaluation of bone quality and stability at the site of a dental implant is important for the long-term prognosis of the implant.

Objective: We evaluated the density and its distribution of cancellous bone in the alveolar bone between a Taiwanese cohort and a U.S. cohort.

Methods: A retrospective analysis using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images was conducted on 1211 Taiwanese and 154 U.S. adults who were evaluated for dental implants. Reconstructed representations of the anterior, premolar, and molar maxillary regions, and of the anterior, premolar, and molar mandibular regions were evaluated in consideration of age, gender and ethnicity.

Results: The mean cancellous bone density was significantly higher at mandibular as compared to maxillary sites (all p ≤ 0.001). In Taiwanese more than 55 years old, men had higher cancellous bone densities than that in women at all sites (except mandible anterior site) (all p < 0.001). Taiwanese women more than 55 years old had significantly lower bone densities than women less than 55 years old at maxilla anterior and premolar sites and mandible premolar and molar sites (all p < 0.05). This did not occur in Taiwanese men or the U.S. cohort. Taiwanese had higher cancellous bone densities at mandibular sites than the U.S. cohort. Mandibular sites had significantly higher densities than maxillary sites. Taiwanese had higher cancellous bone densities at mandible sites than the U.S. cohort. Male Taiwanese had higher cancellous bone densities than females. For female, but not male, Taiwanese, the cancellous bone density decreased when the age increased.

Conclusion: CBCT can be used to evaluate alveolar cancellous bone density to predict primary stability prior to implantation.

Open access

Zheng-Feng Wang, Wan-Hui Ye, Sheng-Lei Fu, Hai Ren and Shao-Lin Peng

Abstract

The lower subtropical monsoon evergreen broadleaved forest in South China (about 22° ~ 24° N) has a high conservation status, because of its uniqueness and high biodiversity. During the last few decades, most of these forests have been destroyed, and the remaining are being degraded by fragmentation. However, genetic information concerning the effects of fragmentation is currently lacking for plant species in these forests. In this study, therefore, eight microsatellites were used to study six Cryptocaya chinensis fragmented populations in Guangdong Province South China, and the results revealed a complex pattern of genetic variation within and among C. chinensis populations. Firstly, genetic variations demonstrate hitherto undetected clonal growth in C. chinensis. Secondly, current population structure of C. chinensis reflects an interaction between ancient homogeneous level of genetic variation and contemporary bottleneck via fragmentation. Small populations maintain substantial genetic variation of the initial populations through clonal growth, and do not show genetic depauperation compared to larger populations. Finally, two genetically distinct groups (West and Middle- East groups) are found in this area, connected by highly mixed contact zone.

Open access

Jian Liang, Meng Zhou, Lin-Yu Li, Ji-Cheng Shu, Yong-Hong Liang, Feng-Qin Li, Li Xiong and Hui-Lian Huang

Abstract

Flow-injection mass spectrometry (FIMS) coupled with a chemometric method is proposed in this study to profile and distinguish between rhizomes of Smilax glabra (S. glabra) and Smilax china (S. china). The proposed method employed an electrospray-time-of-flight MS. The MS fingerprints were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) with the aid of SIMCA software. Findings showed that the two kinds of samples perfectly fell into their own classes. Further predictive study showed desirable predictability and the tested samples were successfully and reliably identified. The study demonstrated that the proposed method could serve as a powerful tool for distinguishing between S. glabra and S. china.

Open access

Zaiga Nora-Krūkle, Santa Rasa, Anda Vilmane, Sabīne Grāvelsiņa, Mārtiņš Kālis, Inga Ziemele, Milda Naciute, Sigita Petraitiene, Diana Mieliauskaite, Migle Klimantaviciene, Irute Girkontaite, Hsin-Fu Liu, Jih-Hui Lin, Yung-Cheng Lin, Hsiu-Chuan Chan, Dace Gardovska and Modra Murovska

Abstract

Human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1) is a parvovirus recently found to be a possible aetiologic agent of acute respiratory disease in children. We conducted the first clinical and molecular study on this virus in Latvia (LV) and Lithuania (LT). The aim of the study was to determine the occurrence of HBoV1 in respiratory tract samples taken from hospitalised children with acute respiratory tract infections in LV and LT. In total 186 children with age one to 50 months, and who fulfilled criteria of acute respiratory tract infection, including lower respiratory tract infections, with or without fever, were included in this study. A nasopharyngeal aspirate was obtained from each patient on admission. DNA was isolated and polimerase chain reaction (PCR) performed targeting the HBoV1 NS1sequence. HBoV1 positive samples were sequenced and phylogenetic analysis was performed. HBoV1 sequence was detected in 42 (32%) of 130 LV and in 8 (14%) of 56 LT samples. In LV the majority of patients with HBoV1 infection were observed in February while in LT in October. The phylogenetic tree for HBoV1 indicated that isolates of HBoV1 cluster closely and include almost all of the isolates in this study. HBoV1 is common in Latvia and Lithuania and might be a significant pathogen that contributes to acute respiratory tract infections in children.