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Open access

Dan-Dan Zhang, Pi Luo, Ying Chen, Zheng-Feng Wang, Wan-Hui Ye and Hong-Lin Cao

Abstract

Engelhardia roxburghiana is a common half evergreen tree with a wide distribution in southeast Asia. Despite its ecological and pharmaceutical values, its genetic diversity is poorly studied. Our objective was to develop nuclear microsatellite markers to investigate the level of genetic diversity within and among populations in the future. Using the microsatellite-enriched library and PCR-based screening method, 12 microsatellite markers were developed and showed polymorphism in a population. The number of alleles per locus for these 12 microsatellites ranged from four to 15. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.358 to 0.897 and from 0.369 to 0.886, respectively. The developed microsatellites will be useful for studying genetic diversity and population structure in E. roxburghiana.

Open access

Yu Cao, Jiang Zhang, Wei Yang, Cheng Xia, Hong-You Zhang, Yan-Hui Wang and Chuang Xu

Abstract

Introduction: The predictive value of selected parameters in the risk of ketosis and fatty liver in dairy cows was determined.

Material and Methods: In total, 21 control and 17 ketotic Holstein Friesian cows with a β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentration of 1.20 mmol/L as a cut-off point were selected. The risk prediction thresholds for ketosis were determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis.

Results: In the ketosis group, paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) activity and concentration of PON-1 and glucose (GLU) were decreased, and aminotransferase (AST) activity as well as BHBA and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) contents were increased. The plasma activity and concentration of PON-1 were significantly positively correlated with the level of plasma GLU. The plasma activity and concentration of PON-1 were significantly negatively correlated with the levels of AST and BHBA. According to ROC curve analysis, warning indexes of ketosis were: plasma PON-1 concentration of 46.79 nmol/L, GLU concentration of 3.04 mmol/L, AST concentration of 100 U/L, and NEFA concentration of 0.82 mmol/L.

Conclusion: This study showed that the levels of PON-1, GLU, AST, and NEFA could be used as indicators to predict the risk of ketosis in dairy cows.

Open access

Yu Cao, Jiang Zhang, Wei Yang, Cheng Xia, Hong-You Zhang, Yan-Hui Wang and Chuang Xu

Abstract

Introduction: A model of fatty liver in postpartum sheep was established to measure blood paraoxonase 1 (PON1) and other biochemical indicators, which were used to predict fatty liver in sheep.

Material and Methods: Sheep were assigned into two experimental groups: a fatty liver group (T, n = 10) and a healthy control group (C, n = 5). PON1 enzyme activity towards paraoxon as a substrate was quantified spectrophotometrically. The results were analysed by t-test and pearson correlation coefficient. Disease was predicted by binary logistic analysis, and diagnostic thresholds were determined by receiver operatingcharacteristic (ROC) analysis.

Results: The activity of serum PON1 in group T was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) when compared with C group, and liver lipid content and the levels of serum BHBA, NEFA, and TG were significantly increased (P < 0.05). Thresholds were lower than 74.0 U/mL for PON1, higher than 0.97 mmol/L for β-hydroxybutyrate, higher than 1.29 mmol/L for non-esterified fatty acids, higher than 0.24 mmol/L for triglycerides, and lower than 71.35 g/L for total protein.

Conclusion: This study verified that PON1, BHBA, NEFA, TG, and TP could be used to predict the risk of fatty liver in sheep.

Open access

Yin-Guang Cao, Zhi-Hui Li, Ai-Xia Sun, Gui-Qing Yang, Le-Xin Wang and Xin-Xin Lu

Abstract

Background: CA16 and enterovirus 71 are two key etiological agents for children’s hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD). Large-scale HFMD outbreaks have taken place every year in Liaocheng City, Shandong Province of China since 2008.

Objective: We investigated the genetic background and phyletic evolution of coxsackie virus A16 (CA16)-related severe HFMD in children from Liaocheng City.

Method: CA16 was screened from throat swab and anus specimens obtained from children with severe HFMD between 2008 and 2010. Specific primers were used to amplify the VP1 region of CA 16 for sequence analysis.

Result: A total of 461 specimens were detected to be enterovirus positive from 2008 to 2010 and 401 specimens were CA16 positive. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of 16 isolates from children with severe HFMD were compared with the reference sequences, and the nucleotide homology was 91.43%-98.65%, and the amino acid homology was 97.98%-100%. Of the16 isolates, 9 isolates and BJ03-ZDP (AY821798), Shzh00-1 (AY790926), Shzh05-1 (EU262658), and GZ08 (FJ198212) strains isolated from Chinese mainland were located on the same branch; the remaining 7 isolates, the strains isolated from Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, Australia and other neighboring countries. AF177911 from Taiwan andshzh01-69 strain (AY895111) from Shenzhen were located on another branch.

Conclusion: CA16 is one of the major pathogens of HFMD and the homology of strains is high.

Open access

Hong-Yu Niu, Wan-Hui Ye, Zheng-Feng Wang, Ying Chen, Hong-Lin Cao, Lin-Fang Wu and Zhang-Ming Wang

Abstract

Schima superba is a common dominant tree species in evergreen broad-leaved forest in subtropical China. Despite its multiple usages in wood industry, reforestation and traditional Chinese medicine, its genetic diversity is poorly studied. To help studying its genetic diversity and structure in the future, after microsatellite enrichment and screening, we identified 16 microsatellites in S. superba. These markers showed polymorphism in three populations. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 to 32 with a mean of 14. Within populations, the observed and unbiased expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.048 to 0.926 and from 0.048 to 0.949, respectively. The newly developed 16 microsatellites will be useful for investigating the genetic diversity and structure from large scale patterns to fine-scale structures in this species.