Bo Hu, Yu-kun Jin, Wan-jiang Gu, Jun Liu, Hua-qin Qin, Chong Chen and Ying-yu Wang
Guang-Hua Qin, Yue-Zhong Jiang and Yu-Ling Qiao
As one of the fast-growing tree species, hybrid poplar (Populus ssp.) has been widely planted in Shandong Province, China. While poplar tree breeding program in the past few decades focused on the development of poplar clones with fast growth rate and disease resistance, little attention was paid to the tree traits of these clones in relation to industrial uses i.e. pulpwood as well as veneer. In this paper, growth performance of hybrid poplar clones from backcrossedprogenies obtained from cross fertilization within the Poplar Aigeiros Section was evaluated and stem traits as well as wood properties in relation to industrial use of some selected clones were assessed. Of the 40 hybrid poplar clones tested in the study, A50 and B69 were prominent in growth rate at three trial sites in Shandong Province, China.Wood properties in relation to industrial uses of the two clones were also better than or comparable to the control clone. It was concluded that A50 is more suitable for pulpwood production while B69 is suitable for a wide range of high value added application such as veneer and plywood. Further research is needed to evaluate the changes of some tree traits in relation to industrial raw materials through time.
Li Wang, Hua-Min Liu, Ai-Jun Xie, Chun-Yan Zhu and Guang-Yong Qin
Corn hulls were abundant and inexpensive byproducts of the corn dry or wet milling processes, but most of them were discarded as agro-wastes. The aim of this study was to extract the dietary fiber by hot-compressed water (HCW) from defatted corn hull and to determine the chemical properties. Results showed that temperature and time played critical roles in extraction efficiency; the maximal yield of dietary fiber A (DFA) extracted by HCW reached 33.0% at 150°C for 60 min. The yield of dietary fiber B (DFB) increased from 2.0% to 56.9% as the temperature increased from 110 to 180°C, while the yield of solid residue (SR) decreased from 88.7% to 27.7%. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) results demonstrated that C-H, O-H, C=O, COO- occurred in the DFA, SR and DFB. The dietary fiber polysaccharides consisted of arabinose, galactose, glucose, xylose and uronic acid.
Yong-jian Ji, Wan-hua Ren, Fei-fei Li, Jian-ting Fang, Xi-zhen Sun and Cheng-yong Qin
Objective To investigate the quantitation of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) at week 24 in predicting the efficacy of pegylated-interferon alfa-2a (Peg-IFN-α 2a) in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients at week 48 and to find a useful predictor for treatment efficacy and investigate individualized treatment of antiviral therapy.
Methods Ninety-six HBeAg-positive CHB patients with detectable HBeAg who were treated with Peg-IFN-α 2a were enrolled in this trial. They were categorized into 3 groups according to the changes of HBeAg in week 24: HBeAg decline > 2 log10 group (group A), HBeAg decline between 1 1og10 - 2 log10 (group B), HBeAg decline < 1 log10 group (group C), and group C was randomly distributed into C1 and C2. The patients in group A, group B, and group C1 continued the original therapy and the patients in group C2 were given lamivudine plus Peg-IFN-α 2a for 24 weeks. At week 48, the treatment efficacy and hepatitis B virus covalently closed circular DNA (HBV cccDNA) in liver biopsies were analyzed.
Results At week 48, mean reduction of serum HBV DNA: group A: 5.8 log10 copies/ml, group B: 3.8 log10 copies/ml, group C1: 2.8 log10 copies/ml, group C2: 5.7 log10 copies/ml, the reduction of HBV DNA in group A was greater than groups B and C1 (P < 0.01), that in group C1 was greater than group C2 (P < 0.01), the difference between groups B and C1 had no statistical significance (P = 0.19). Mean reduction of HBeAg: group A: 2.7 log10S/CO, group B: 1.9 log10S/CO, group C1: 0.9 log10S/CO, group C2: 1.5 log10S/CO, the difference among groups A, B and C1 and between groups C1 and C2 were statistically significant (P < 0.01). At week 48, HBV DNA undetectable rate in group A, group B, group C1 and group C2 were 87.5%, 34.5%, 17.4% and 81.9%, respectively, the rate in group A was greater than groups B and C1 (P < 0.01)，that in group C1 was greater than group C2 (P < 0.01). HBeAg seroconversion rate were 75.0%, 24.1%, 13.0% and 22.7%, respectively, that in group A was greater than groups B and C1 (P < 0.01). Group A had lower cccDNA in liver tissue than group B and group C1 (P < 0.01). The difference of HBV cccDNA between groups B and C1 and that between groups C1 and C2 had no statistical significance.
Conclusions HBeAg decline > 2 log10 at week 24 in Peg-IFN-α 2a-treated hepatitis B patients suggested a better efficacy at week 48; HBeAg decline < 2 log10 at week 24 suggests a worse efficacy at week 48, the combined therapy of Peg-IFN-α and lamivudine could improve the clinical responses. The change of quantitative of HBeAg at week 24 may be used as a predictor of treatment effects at week 48.
Jie-Bin Zhou, Ying-Ying Sun, Ying-Lin Zheng, Chu-Qin Yu, Hua-Qing Lin and Ji-Yan Pang
In this study, the effect of four xyloketals 1-4 on store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) was investigated in primary distal pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) isolated from mice. The results showed that xyloketal A (1), an unusual ketal with C-3 symmetry, exhibited strong SOCE blocking activity. Secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8) was also inhibited by xyloketal A. The parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) of 1-4 suggested that these xyloketals penetrated easily through the cell membrane. Moreover, the molecular docking study of xyloketal A with activation region of the stromal interaction molecule (STIM) 1 and the calcium release-activated calcium modulator (ORAI) 1 (STIM1-ORAI1) protein complex, the key domain of SOCE, revealed that xyloketal A exhibited a noncovalent interaction with the key residue lysine 363 (LYS363) in the identified cytosolic regions in STIM1-C. These findings provided useful information about xyloketal A as a SOCE inhibitor for further evaluation.
Sheng Hua Wang, Sun Young Cho and Xiao Long Qin
The purpose of this paper is to consider the problem of approximating zero points of accretive operators. We introduce and analysis Mann-type iterative algorithm with errors and Halpern-type iterative algorithms with errors. Weak and strong convergence theorems are established in a real Banach space. As applications, we consider the problem of approximating a minimizer of a proper lower semicontinuous convex function in a real Hilbert space
Ming-hui Li, Yao Xie, Yao Lu, Guo-hua Qiu, Lu Zhang, Ge Shen, Li-wei Zhuang, Ju-long Hu, Jian-ping Dong, Cai-qin Mu, Lei-ping Hu, Li-jun Chen, Xing-hong Li, Min Yang, Yun-zhong Wu, Hui Zhao, Shu-jing Song, Jun Cheng and Dao-zhen Xu
Objective To investigate the effects of individualised treatment with peginterferon alpha-2a (40 kD) plus ribavirin in Chinese patients with CHC.
Methods Total of 297 consecutive Chinese patients were enrolled, including 250 naïve cases and 47 cases who were previously treated. Treatment duration was determined according to viral genotypes, prior treatment history and viral responses at week 4, 12 and 24.
Results Totally, 235 patients (79.1%) completed treatment and 186 (87.3%) achieved SVR. And 219 out of 289 (75.8%) patients achieved HCV RNA negative at week 4 (RVR) and 259 of 276 (93.8%) at week 12. Among the 164 patients with RVR who completed follow-up, 158 (96.3%) achieved SVR. Patients with RVR had lower baseline viral loads than patients without RVR (P = 0.034). The positive predictive value (PPV) of RVR for SVR was 90.7% (OR 2.10 vs. non-RVR, 95% CI: 0.50 - 8.7). Similar outcomes were observed among patients with HCV undetectable at week 12.
Conclusions Complete viral suppression by week 4 is associated with a high rate of treatment success in treatment naïve and experienced patients receiving individualized CHC therapy.
Guo-liang Zhang, Jian-bo Ding, Shuang-jie Li, Xi Zhang, Yi Xu, Hua-sheng Yang, Dan Wei, Qin Li, Qing-sheng Shi, Qing-xiong Zhu, Tong Yang, Zi-qiang Zhuo, Yi-mei Tian, Hao-jie Zheng, Liu-ping Tang, Xin-ying Zou, Tao Wen and Xiu-hui Li
Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) combined with Western medicine in the treatment of patients with common hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) by conducting a prospective, controlled, and randomized trial.
Methods A total of 452 patients with common HFMD were randomly assigned to receive Western medicine alone (n = 220) or combined with TCM (Reduning or Xiyanping injections) (n = 232). The primary outcome was the incidence rate of rash/herpes disappearance within 5 days, while secondary outcomes included the incidence rate for fever, cough, lethargy, agitation, and vomiting clearance within 5 days.
Results The rash/herpes disappearance rate was 45.5% (100/220) in Western medicine therapy group, and 67.2% (156/232) in TCM and Western medicine combined therapy group, with significant difference (P < 0.001). Moreover, TCM remarkably increased the incidence rate of secondary disappearance, which was 56.4% in Western medicine therapy group and 71.4% in TCM and Western medicine combined therapy group (P = 0.001). No drug-related adverse events were observed.
Conclusions It’s suggested that the integrative TCM and Western medicine therapy achieved a better therapeutic efficacy. TCM may become an important complementary therapy on relieving the symptoms of HFMD.