The phenomenon of cavitation is an unsteady flow, which is nearly inevitable in pump. It would degrade the pump performance, produce vibration and noise and even damage the pump. Hence, to improve accuracy of the nu¬merical prediction of the pump cavitation performance is much desirable. In the present work, a homogenous model, the Zwart-Gerber-Belamri cavitation model, is considered to investigate the influence of the empirical coefficients on predicting the pump cavitation performance, concerning a centrifugal pump. Three coefficients are analyzed, namely the nucleation site radius, evaporation and condensation coefficients. Also, the experiments are carried out to validate the numerical simulations. The results indicate that, to get a precise prediction, the approaches of declining the initial bubble radius, the condensation coefficient or increasing the evaporation coefficient are all feasible, especially for de¬clining the condensation coefficient, which is the most effective way.
The first and second Zagreb eccentricity indices (EM1and EM2), the eccentric distance sum (EDS), and the connective eccentricity index (CEI) are all recently conceived eccentricity-based graph invariants, some of which found applications in chemistry. We prove that EDS ≥ EM1for any con- nected graph, whereas EDS > EM2 for trees. Moreover, in the case of trees, EM1 ≥ CEI, whereas EM2> CEI for trees with at least three vertices. In addition, we compare EDS with EM2, and compare EM1, EM2with CEI for general connected graphs under some restricted conditions.
The Gyaring Co Fault (GCF) is an active right-lateral strike-slip fault in central Tibet that accommodates convergence between India and Asia in the interior of the Tibetan Plateau. The average long-term slip rate of the fault remains controversial, given the absence of absolute age data of faulted geomorphic features. We have applied optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating to the northern segment of the GCF, revealing that the GCF has displaced alluvial fans at Aerqingsang by 500 ± 100 m since their deposition at ~109 ka, yielding a slip rate of 4.6 ± 1.0 mm/yr. A slip rate of 3.4 ± 0.4 mm/yr is inferred from analysis of an alluvial fan with an offset of 65 ± 5 m (~19 ka) at Quba site 1. The Holocene slip rate is estimated to be 1.9 ± 0.3 mm/yr, as inferred from the basal age (~8.3 ka) of terrace T1 that has a gully displacement of 16 ± 2 m at Quba site 2. These slip rates are generally lower early estimates (10–20 mm/yr), but are consistent with more recent results (2.2–4.5 mm/yr) and GPS data for other strike-slip faults in this region, indicating that deformation may be distributed across the entire Tibetan Plateau. Moreover, we suggest that the slip rate along the GCF may have decreased slightly during the late Quaternary.
The anti-impact ability of shafting affects stability and security of the ship power transmission directly. Moreover, it also cannot be ignored that the rub-impact loads have influence on the torsion vibration of ship shafting. In order to solve the problem of engineering application of reliability assessment under rub-impact loads, a test rig with rubbing generator is established. By carrying out the integrative analysis, the torsional vibration characteristics, such as vibration amplitude and orbit of axle center under the rub impact load are studied. According to the rub-impact conditions obtained through numerical simulation, the experimental verification is carried out on the test rig with rubbing generator. The results show that it is not obvious the influence of rub-impact loads upon the shafting torsion vibration except in special working conditions, that can be simulated by the rubbing generator. The maximum amplitude of torsional vibration is influenced by the radial rigidity as well as the friction coefficient of rubbing body, and the degree of influence is difference under conditions of continuous rubbing and serious rubbing. By adjusting the rigidity of stern bearing, the influence of rub-impact upon shafting can be weaken, which provides a theoretical reference for the safety evaluation of ship shafting.
The present research aimed to explore the influence of different felt-proofing methods on alpaca fibers’ scale structure. Dyed alpaca fibers were exposed to a particular wavelength of ultraviolet (UV) light for different periods and treated with protease to analyze the felt property and compare with untreated fibers. Experimental results have shown that alpaca fibers have better shrinkage resistance and dyeability after being exposed to UV light, whereas no recognizable change was obtained on the surface of alpaca fibers’ scale structure by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In contrary, enzyme-treated alpaca fibers revealed improved dye rate and resistance to shrinkage. Especially, damaged scales on many areas of fiber surface were appeared by SEM, which indicates that UV may have a positive effect on enzyme treatment by damaging alpaca fibers’ surface structure and promoting the amount of protease going into the fibers’ inner layers. Therefore, eventually a better shrinkage resistance was obtained.
Introduction: Tiletamine-xylazine-tramadol (XFM) has few side effects and can provide good sedation and analgesia. Adenosine 5’-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) can attenuate trigeminal neuralgia. The study aimed to investigate the effects of XFM and its specific antagonist on AMPK in different regions of the brain. Material and Methods: A model of XFM in the rat was established. A total of 72 Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three equally sized groups: XFM anaesthesia (M group), antagonist (W group), and XFM with antagonist interactive groups (MW group). Eighteen SD rats were in the control group and were injected intraperitoneally with saline (C group). The rats were sacrificed and the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, thalamus, and brain stem were immediately separated, in order to detect AMPKα mRNA expression by quantitative PCR. Results: XFM was able to increase the mRNA expression of AMPKα1 and AMPKα2 in all brain regions, and the antagonist caused the opposite effect, although the effects of XFM could not be completely reversed in some areas. Conclusion: XFM can influence the expression of AMPK in the central nervous system of the rat, which can provide a reference for the future development of anaesthetics for animals.
In this paper, numerical investigations for tank sloshing, based on commercial CFD package FLUENT, are performed to study effects of boundary layer grid, liquid viscosity and compressible air on sloshing pressure, wave height and rising time of impact pressure. Also, sloshing experiments for liquids of different viscosity are carried out to validate the numerical results. Through comparison of numerical and experimental results, a computational model including boundary layer grid can predict the sloshing pressure more accurately. Energy dissipation due to viscous friction leads to reduction of sloshing pressure and wave elevation. Sloshing pressure is also reduced because of cushion effect of compressible air. Due to high viscosity damping effect and compressible air effect, the rising time of impact pressure becomes longer. It is also found that liquid viscosity and compressible air influence distribution of dynamic pressure along the vertical tank wall.
Biodegradable intravascular stent has attracted more and more focus in recent years as an effective solution for angiostenosis. Ideal stents were expected to exhibit sufficient radial force to support the vascular wall, while suitable flexibility for the angioplasty. After vascular remodeling, stents should be degraded into small molecular and be eliminated from human body, causing no potential risk. In this paper, poly-p-dioxanone (PDO) monofilament was braided into net structure with four different braiding density, two of which exhibited sufficient radial force larger than 30 kPa, and three of which showed the bending rigidity within 11.7–88.1 N•mm2. The degradation behaviors of monofilaments and stents have been observed for 16 weeks. The findings obtained indicate that degradation first occurred in morphology region, which induced temporary increase of crystallinity, monofilament bending rigidity and stent mechanical properties. During this period, monofilament tends to be hard and brittle and lost its tensile properties. Then the crystalline region was degraded and stent mechanical properties decreased. All the results reveal that the PDO intravascular stents with braided structure were able to afford at least 10 weeks of sufficient support to the vascular wall.
The ice jam in a river can significantly change the flow field in winter and early spring. The presence of bridge piers further complicates the hydraulic process by interacting between the ice jam and bridge piers. Using the data collected from experiments in a laboratory flume, the evolution of an ice jam around bridge piers having three different diameters has been investigated in this study. Compared to results without-pier, it was found that the formation of an ice jam in the downstream of bridge pier is faster than that in the upstream. The thickness distribution of the ice jam shows clearly different characteristics in front and behind of bridge piers at different stages of the ice jam.
Traditional wavelet denoising method cannot eliminate complex high-pressure pipe signals effectively. In the updated wavelet adaptive algorithm, this thesis defines the constraints in order to reconstruct the signals accurately. According to the minimum mean square error criterion, the results predict the weight coefficient and get the optimal linear predictive value. Adopting the improved algorithm under the same condition, this thesis concluded that Db6 increased the complexity of wavelet algorithm by 50% by comparative experiments. It will be more conducive to the realization of hardware and the feasibility of real-time denoising. Dual adaptive wavelet denoising method improved SNR by 50%. This denoising method will play a key role in the detection rate of high-pressure pipe in the online leakage detection system.