Background: The Framework Programme (FP7) is the main instrument of the EU for financing research, and participation in the programme benefits greatly to countries’ technological development. Objectives: The aim of this paper is to assess the participation of Croatian organisations in FP7 in terms of specific programmes, funding schemes and the coordinator organisations. Methods: In order to assess this participation, two analyses have been done: the first is the analysis of participation itself analysing the basic characteristics of Croatian participation in FP7 using participation data. The second analysis is the analysis of external conditions for participation, i.e. a framework that influenced the quantity and the quality of participation in FP7. Results: Participation of Croatian institutions in the FP7 has the following features: the positive rate of the national and the EU financial contribution; an unequal regional distribution; a small number of projects coordinated by Croatian participants; a low success rate and rare participation in large research projects. Conclusions: Support should be provided to researchers in order to increase the participation in future funding programmes. First, researchers should perform only research and not the project administration since it requires well-educated and trained administration staff. Second, participants in future projects, especially coordinators, should be financially rewarded.