This paper presents the results of an experimental study to quantify the effects of bed slope and relative submergence on incipient motion of sediment under decelerating flows. Experiments were conducted in an experimental tilting-flume of 8 m long 0.4 m wide and 0.6 m deep with glass-walls. Three uniform sediments with median grain sizes of 0.95, 1.8 and 3.8 mm and three bed slopes of 0.0075, 0.0125 and 0.015 were used under decelerating flow. The main conclusion is that the Shields diagram, which is commonly used to evaluate the critical shear stress, is not suitable to predict the critical shear stress under decelerating flows.
Estimation of hydraulic and geometric parameters of a gravel-bed river such as dimensions of bedforms is very difficult task, although they play a fundamental role in river engineering projects. One of the methods to get essential information regarding the bedform characteristics is to find the relations between the flow parameters and bedform dimensions. We conducted this field study in the Babolroud River in northern Iran to investigate the application of double averaged method in unspecific gravel bedforms to evaluate friction factor. Using data collected from several river reaches with total length of 356 m of a gravel-bed river, the relationship between bedform geometry (height and the length of bedforms) and flow parameters including shear velocity, transport stage parameter with friction factor is investigated. Different methods for estimating bedforms dimensions are examined to assess the ability of predicting bedform parameters (length and height) in a gravel-bed river. Using bedform parameters, the contribution of particle and form friction is estimated. Results confirm the application of the double averaged method and existing bedform parameters for unspecific bedforms. There exists a similar trend between aspect ratio and friction factor in gravel bedforms.
Investigation of the interactions between submerged vegetation patch and flow structure is of crucial importance for river engineering. Most of hydraulic models have been presented for fully developed flows over uniform vegetation in the laboratory conditions; however, the mentioned interactions are complex in river flows where the flow is not developed along small patch. This reveals a gap between developed and non-developed flow along the vegetation patch. This study was conducted in a gravel-bed river in the central Iran. The results reveal that the flow structure in evolving flow (non-developed flow) along the patch resembles that in shallow mixing layer. Accordingly, a shallow mixing layer model and modified equations are combined to quantify evolving area along the patch. The evolving shallow mixing layer equations for the flow along a non-uniform vegetation patch reach a reasonable agreement with field data. However, the spreading coefficient of this model less than one was reported in literature, 0.06 and 0.12. In addition, the flow immediately downstream the vegetation patch behaves similar to a jet and is parameterized by two conventional models, conventional logarithmic law and mixing layer theory. These models present a reasonable agreement with the measured velocity profiles immediately downstream the patch.
Field observations showed that in many gravel-bed rivers, rice stems and gravel interact with each other and affect the flow structure. This calls to conduct research in more details in laboratory to better understand impacts of interaction between rice stems and gravel bed rivers on the flow structure. The outcome of such investigations can improve the estimation of drag coefficient in hydrodynamic models. Experiments were carried out in a flume with gravel bed and the vegetated vertical flume walls to investigate turbulence characteristics under favorable pressure gradient flows. Results showed that the stress fraction involves both the sweep and ejection dominance near the vegetated flume walls, showing no negative Reynolds shear stress near water surface. The values of exuberance ratio play a significant role on the magnitude of the Reynolds shear stress which varies with the distance from the vegetation. Quadrant analysis reveals that a major part of the momentum flux is transported during a short period of strong turbulence activity near the bed at the central axis. Augmentation of the hole size makes difference between contributions of sweep and ejection with those of the outward and inward interactions near the bed, however, the hole size doesn’t play any role near the water surface.