This study aimed to characterise the effects of ketosis on milk yield and composition and digestive capacity in transition dairy cows.
Material and Methods
Seven ketotic and seven healthy cows were housed in individual stalls for six days. Samples of plasma, milk, refused total mixed ration, and faeces were collected, and the blood biochemical parameters, milk yield and composition, dry matter intake, and faecal dry matter (FDM) production were determined.
Compared with healthy cows, the ketotic cows had significantly higher concentrations of milk fat and citrate, but lower levels of milk protein and lactose. The cows exhibited a need for acid detergent fibre in forage and better digestion of neutral detergent fibre, starch, crude protein, and phosphorus than healthy cows, but more fat and gross energy were excreted in their faeces. Ketotic cows had higher energy-corrected milk yields and lower FDM than healthy cows.
Lower feed intake coinciding with the requirement to maintain high milk production is considered to be the cause of ketosis in dairy cows. Ketotic cows exhibited lower dry matter fat digestion.
Introduction: The differentially expressed proteins between healthy cows and those with footrot were identified to explore changes in protein profiles associated with the disease. Material and Methods: Out of 36 cows selected for the experiment, 18 footrot-affected cows were included in the treatment group (group T) and 18 unaffected cows were included in the control group (group C). Plasma samples from groups T and C were subjected to two-dimensional electrophoresis analysis and differentially expressed proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Bioinformatics, including gene ontology analysis and pathway analysis, was used for analysing all proteins. Results: Out of 63 spots identified by 2DE, 33 were selected for mass spectrum analysis, which identified 11 differentially expressed proteins in 26 spots. Footrot led to changes in profiles in plasma proteins that were classified to the pathway of inflammatory response, complement, and blood coagulation, among others. Conclusion: This study provides evidence of the defence mechanisms of cows with footrot to explore strategies for treatment.
Introduction: A model of fatty liver in postpartum sheep was established to measure blood paraoxonase 1 (PON1) and other biochemical indicators, which were used to predict fatty liver in sheep.
Material and Methods: Sheep were assigned into two experimental groups: a fatty liver group (T, n = 10) and a healthy control group (C, n = 5). PON1 enzyme activity towards paraoxon as a substrate was quantified spectrophotometrically. The results were analysed by t-test and pearson correlation coefficient. Disease was predicted by binary logistic analysis, and diagnostic thresholds were determined by receiver operatingcharacteristic (ROC) analysis.
Results: The activity of serum PON1 in group T was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) when compared with C group, and liver lipid content and the levels of serum BHBA, NEFA, and TG were significantly increased (P < 0.05). Thresholds were lower than 74.0 U/mL for PON1, higher than 0.97 mmol/L for β-hydroxybutyrate, higher than 1.29 mmol/L for non-esterified fatty acids, higher than 0.24 mmol/L for triglycerides, and lower than 71.35 g/L for total protein.
Conclusion: This study verified that PON1, BHBA, NEFA, TG, and TP could be used to predict the risk of fatty liver in sheep.
Introduction: The predictive value of selected parameters in the risk of ketosis and fatty liver in dairy cows was determined.
Material and Methods: In total, 21 control and 17 ketotic Holstein Friesian cows with a β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentration of 1.20 mmol/L as a cut-off point were selected. The risk prediction thresholds for ketosis were determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis.
Results: In the ketosis group, paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) activity and concentration of PON-1 and glucose (GLU) were decreased, and aminotransferase (AST) activity as well as BHBA and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) contents were increased. The plasma activity and concentration of PON-1 were significantly positively correlated with the level of plasma GLU. The plasma activity and concentration of PON-1 were significantly negatively correlated with the levels of AST and BHBA. According to ROC curve analysis, warning indexes of ketosis were: plasma PON-1 concentration of 46.79 nmol/L, GLU concentration of 3.04 mmol/L, AST concentration of 100 U/L, and NEFA concentration of 0.82 mmol/L.
Conclusion: This study showed that the levels of PON-1, GLU, AST, and NEFA could be used as indicators to predict the risk of ketosis in dairy cows.
Introduction: To identify novel pathways involved in the pathogenesis of ketosis, an isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation/mass spectrometry was used to define differences in protein expression profiles between healthy dairy cows and those with clinical or subclinical ketosis.
Material and Methods: To define the novel pathways of ketosis in cattle, the differences in protein expression were analysed by bioinformatics. Go Ontology and Pathway analysis were carried out for enrich the role and pathway of the different expression proteins between healthy dairy cows and those with clinical or subclinical ketosis.
Results: Differences were identified in 19 proteins, 16 of which were relatively up-regulated while the remaining 3 were relatively down-regulated. Sorbitol dehydrogenase (SORD) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PD) were up-regulated in cattle with ketosis. SORD and G3PD promoted glycolysis. These mechanisms lead to pyruvic acid production increase and ketone body accumulation.
Conclusion: The novel pathways of glycolysis provided new evidence for the research of ketosis.