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  • Author: Hong-xia Wei x
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Successful Treatment with Triple Therapy of Amphotericin B, Voriconazole and Flucytosine on an AIDS Patients with Severe Cryptococcal Meningitis


A 35-year-old man (body weight = 63 kg) with AIDS complaining fever and headache after having commenced anti-retroviral therapy (ART) for a week was admitted to our hospital. Five lumbar punctures performed during 38 days could not confirm a cryptococcal meningitis (CM) based on staining or culture methods for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The disease quickly progressed with serious hearing/vision impairment and frequent onset of seizure and coma after being treated with corticosteroids for five days, and then CM was confirmed. Subsequent lumbar puncture showed elevated intracranial pressure as high as 870 mm H2O, even though treated with standard antifungal regimens for CM. His disease was finally controlled by a new triple therapy with amphotericin B (0.7 mg•kg-1•day-1, intravenously), flucytosine (100 mg/kg perday, orally in four divided doses), and voriconazole (200 mg every 12 hours) and ART containing lamivudine (300 mg/day), stavuding (30 mg, twice a day) and efavirenz (300 mg, orally every night). Although it is rare, negative CSF stain or culture for cryptococci in AIDS patients with CM can persist for a long time. Corticosteroids should be used cautiously when an effective anti-fungal therapy is not administered. Triple therapy with amphotericin B, flucytosine and voriconazole may be selectively applied in severe CM. Voriconazole can be co-administered with efavirenz with modified dosing

Open access
Predictive value of plasma parameters in the risk of postpartum ketosis in dairy cows


Introduction: The predictive value of selected parameters in the risk of ketosis and fatty liver in dairy cows was determined.

Material and Methods: In total, 21 control and 17 ketotic Holstein Friesian cows with a β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentration of 1.20 mmol/L as a cut-off point were selected. The risk prediction thresholds for ketosis were determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis.

Results: In the ketosis group, paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) activity and concentration of PON-1 and glucose (GLU) were decreased, and aminotransferase (AST) activity as well as BHBA and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) contents were increased. The plasma activity and concentration of PON-1 were significantly positively correlated with the level of plasma GLU. The plasma activity and concentration of PON-1 were significantly negatively correlated with the levels of AST and BHBA. According to ROC curve analysis, warning indexes of ketosis were: plasma PON-1 concentration of 46.79 nmol/L, GLU concentration of 3.04 mmol/L, AST concentration of 100 U/L, and NEFA concentration of 0.82 mmol/L.

Conclusion: This study showed that the levels of PON-1, GLU, AST, and NEFA could be used as indicators to predict the risk of ketosis in dairy cows.

Open access
Serum paraoxonase as an indicator for fatty liver in sheep


Introduction: A model of fatty liver in postpartum sheep was established to measure blood paraoxonase 1 (PON1) and other biochemical indicators, which were used to predict fatty liver in sheep.

Material and Methods: Sheep were assigned into two experimental groups: a fatty liver group (T, n = 10) and a healthy control group (C, n = 5). PON1 enzyme activity towards paraoxon as a substrate was quantified spectrophotometrically. The results were analysed by t-test and pearson correlation coefficient. Disease was predicted by binary logistic analysis, and diagnostic thresholds were determined by receiver operatingcharacteristic (ROC) analysis.

Results: The activity of serum PON1 in group T was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) when compared with C group, and liver lipid content and the levels of serum BHBA, NEFA, and TG were significantly increased (P < 0.05). Thresholds were lower than 74.0 U/mL for PON1, higher than 0.97 mmol/L for β-hydroxybutyrate, higher than 1.29 mmol/L for non-esterified fatty acids, higher than 0.24 mmol/L for triglycerides, and lower than 71.35 g/L for total protein.

Conclusion: This study verified that PON1, BHBA, NEFA, TG, and TP could be used to predict the risk of fatty liver in sheep.

Open access
Length-weight relationships of five Cultrinae fish species and two of their hybrids from China


TThe length-weight relationships (LWRs) were determined for five freshwater fish species collected from Liangzi Lake, the Xi River and Longxi River in China, including Megalobrama amblycephala, Megalobrama skolkovii, Megalobrama pellegrini and Megalobrama terminalis belonging to the genus Megalobrama, as well as white Amur bream (Parabramis pekinensis) of the genus Parabramis. Three of these five species had no previous LWR estimates in the FishBase. The LWRs of hybrids from Megalobrama amblycephala ♀ × Parabramis pekinensis ♂ and Megalobrama amblycephala ♀ × Megalobrama terminalis ♂ were also reported for the first time.

Open access
NPS2390, a selective calcium-sensing receptor antagonist controls the phenotypic modulation of hypoxic human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells by regulating autophagy


Background and Objectives

Calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is known to regulate hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (HPH) and vascular remodeling via the phenotypic modulation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) in small pulmonary arteries. Moreover, autophagy is an essential modulator of VSMC phenotype. But it is not clear whether CaSR can regulate autophagy involving the phenotypic modulation under hypoxia.


The viability of human PASMCs was detected by cell cycle and BrdU. The expressions of proliferation protein, phenotypic marker protein, and autophagy protein in human PASMCs were determined by western blot.


Our results showed that hypoxia-induced autophagy was considerable at 24 h. The addition of NPS2390 decreased the expression of autophagy protein and synthetic phenotype marker protein osteopontin and increased the expression of contractile phenotype marker protein SMA-ɑ and calponin via suppressing downstream PI3K/Akt/mTOR signal pathways.


Our study demonstrates that treatment of NPS2390 was conducive to inhibit the proliferation and reverse phenotypic modulation of PASMCs by regulating autophagy levels.

Open access
Investigation of Hepatitis C Virus Infection Rate of Patients in a General Hospital


Objective To investigate the infection rate of hepatitis C virus among the ambulatory patients and in-patients of a tertiary teaching hospital, and study the demographic factors related to the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection.

Methods All patients tested for hepatitis C virus antibody from July 2008 to July 2009 in Peking Union Medical College Hospital were enrolled in this cross-sectional analysis. The prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection was compared according to age, gender, and departments, respectively. Among patients with positive serology hepatitis C virus marker, the positivity of hepatitis C virus RNA was analysed.

Results Among 29 896 subjects included, the hepatitis C virus antibody of 494 patients were positive (1.7%). When patients were divided into 9 age groups, the age specific prevalence of hepatitis C virus antibody were 0.2%, 1.7%, 1.2%, 1.1%, 1.5%, 1.9%,2.6%, 2.4% and 2%, respectively. The prevalence of hepatitis C virus antibody in non-surgical department and surgical department was 3% and 1%, respectively. The prevalence of hepatitis C virus antibody of males was higher than that of the females. Total of 194 patients with positive hepatitis C virus antibody were tested for hepatitis C virus RNA, the RNA level of 113 patients (58.2%) were higher than the low detection limit.

Conclusions The prevalence of hepatitis C virus antibody was relatively high among patients of general tertiary hospital. Age group of 60-69, males and patients in non-surgical departments were factors associated with high rate of hepatitis C virus infection.

Open access