The aim of this study was to assess the management of early mobilization (EM) in Chinese intensive care units (ICUs).
This survey used a cross-sectional, observational design. A total of 65 tertiary and secondary hospitals were enrolled by convenience sampling and investigated using self-designed questionnaires.
We identified 69 ICUs in Jiangsu, China (response rate: 94.2%). 74.2% (1,004/1,353) of the nurses and nursing managers from 65 ICUs reported mobility practice. For the mobility level, 98.1% (1,327) reported use of in-bed exercise, 5.7% (77) sitting on a side of bed, 21.7% (294) transfer to chair, and 2.4% (33) walking. The most frequently reported barriers to early mobility were unplanned extubation, nursing resource, and absence of physical therapist. Nurses’ educational backgrounds, nursing experience, the lack of nursing resources, absence of physician, and the weakness of patient were the factors that influenced ICU early rehabilitation (P<0.01).
Although implementation rates for EM in critically ill patients are high, the activity level is generally poor in most of the involved ICUs.
Xue Peng, Can Wei, Hong-Zhu Li, Hong-Xia Li, Shu-Zhi Bai, Li-Na Wang, Yu-Hui Xi, Jin Yan and Chang-Qing Xu
Background and Objectives
Calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is known to regulate hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (HPH) and vascular remodeling via the phenotypic modulation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) in small pulmonary arteries. Moreover, autophagy is an essential modulator of VSMC phenotype. But it is not clear whether CaSR can regulate autophagy involving the phenotypic modulation under hypoxia.
The viability of human PASMCs was detected by cell cycle and BrdU. The expressions of proliferation protein, phenotypic marker protein, and autophagy protein in human PASMCs were determined by western blot.
Our results showed that hypoxia-induced autophagy was considerable at 24 h. The addition of NPS2390 decreased the expression of autophagy protein and synthetic phenotype marker protein osteopontin and increased the expression of contractile phenotype marker protein SMA-ɑ and calponin via suppressing downstream PI3K/Akt/mTOR signal pathways.
Our study demonstrates that treatment of NPS2390 was conducive to inhibit the proliferation and reverse phenotypic modulation of PASMCs by regulating autophagy levels.
Fan Nie, Ke Hong, Hui-juan Li, Xiu-hui Li, Shuang-jie Li, Wei Zhang, Qing-jing Zhu, Lukun Zhang and Guang Nie
Objective To realize the characteristics of “zheng” differentiation-treatment for hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), a new methodology of syndrome differentiation for different stages of HFMD has been explored.
Methods Total of 2 325 cases with HFMD were recorded by distributing them into exterior syndrome stage, interior syndrome stage, severe syndrome stage and recovered syndrome stage, respectively, and the main symptoms and subsidiary symptoms of different stages of HFMD have been observed. The major and minor pathogenesis of HFMD in different stages were obtained, and compared with the “2010 Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of HFMD”.
Results It was found that the major pathogenesis of exterior stage was defined as “the invation of the wenevil to the defender of the body with the collaterals got involved”, and the minor as “qi deficiency”; in interior stage, “the fury of Gan-Yang” was the main pathogenesis, and “qi in chaos and qi deficiency” was the minor; in severe syndrome stage, “the damage of heart, liver and lung” was the main pathogenesis, and “qi in chaos” was the minor; and the pathogenesis of recovered stage was “qi-yin deficiency”. Compared with the “2010 Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of HFMD”, it showed that “the obstruction of the fei-pi qi by the mixture of shi-re evil” and “the mixture of shi-re” in vivo was quite difficult to be explained in completely different context in the general situation; in the severe stage, the TCM clinical characteristics of syndrome differentiation might lose; in the early acute severe cases, the phenomenon that xin-yang and fei-qi almost ran out was difficult to be observed, then, the line between the severe and the acute severe became vague.
Conclusions The theory of syndrome differentiation by stages of HFMD was reasonable in the actual situation of clinical description on HFMD which was expected to be further tested and widely applied in the “zheng” differentiation-treatment of HFMD in the future.
Yong- hong Yang, Xue-li Zheng, Lei-zi Qing, Pin-ting Zhu, Jing Pan and Lei Luo
Obejective The domain Ⅲ of dengue virus type 2 envelope was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant protein inhibited virus effect was tested.
Methods In this study, the domain Ⅲ (DⅢ) protein of the dengue virus type-2 (DENV-2) envelope (E) antigen was expressed in Escherichia coli by fusion with a carrier protein. The protein was purified using enzymatic cleavage and affinity purification. Rabbit immunization and antibody detection was carried out. Inhibition of DENV-2 infection was observed by DENV-2 EDⅢ protein and its immunity rabbits serum.
Results The recombinant expression DENV-2 EDⅢ protein plasmid was constructed successfully. After isopropyl thiogalactoside induction, a specific soluble 29 kD protein was obtained, and the expression product accounted for 68.87% of the total protein of the cell lysate. Western blotting demonstrated the reactivity of the recombinant protein with his-tag and DENV (Ⅰ-Ⅳ) monoclonal antibodies. The protein was purified using enzymatic cleavage and affinity purification. The purified recombinant EDⅢ protein inhibited the entry of DENV-2 into BHK-21 cells. DENV-2 plaque neutralization assays were carried out using serially diluted antibodies against EDⅢ protein. At a 1:16 dilution, the antibodies produced at least 90% neutralization of the DENV-2 virus. Furthermore, the antibodies continued to exhibit high neutralization effects (approximately 80%) until the anti-EDⅢ antibody titer reached 1:1 024.
Conclusions DENV-2 EDⅢ was cloned and expressed successfully. DENV-2 EDⅢ protein could be useful in the development of inexpensive dengue vaccine. The data also suggested that DENV-2 employed an attachment molecule or receptor for its entry into C6/36 mosquito cells.
Objective: The objective was to increase the understanding of vascular access in hemodialysis
and evaluate hemodialysis-related anticoagulation treatments and the associated hemorrhagic
or thrombotic complications. Materials and Methods: In this study, an epidemiological
investigation was conducted in 1175 patients who underwent hemodialysis in seven blood
purification centers in northern Chinese. The patients were divided into two groups based on
the vascular access they used: Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) group and central venous catheter
(CVC) group. The similarities and differences of anticoagulation and hemorrhagic, thrombotic
complications were compared between two groups. Results: Arteriovenous fistula was the
most frequently used vascular access, and heparin was the most commonly used anticoagulant.
Patients in CVC group experienced significantly greater rates of low molecular weight heparin
(LMWH) administration and had a higher rate in achieving thrombotic complications than
those in AVF group. There were no significant differences in LMWH dosages in patients with
thrombotic complications, as well as the proportion of patients who received anti-platelet drugs.
Heparinized catheter lock solutions were excessively high in this study, which may lead to a
risk of hemorrhage. Conclusion: Hemodialysis-related anticoagulation treatments in China
require additional improvements, especially for the patients using CVC as vascular access.
There is an urgent need to develop clinical evaluation studies of anticoagulation treatments
for achieving more standardized and targeted treatments.
Yi-hai Gu, Xiao Zhu, Jing-yun Li, Jun Zhang, Qing-yuan Zhou, Yue Ma, Chang-qin Hu, Shao-hong Jin and Sheng-hui Cui
Objective To identify the risk factors for imipenem resistance development and transmission of clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates.
Methods Thirty-seven imipenem unsusceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates collected from patients in absence of carbapenem treatment were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility test, pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and carbapenem resistant mechanism analysis.
Results Before the collection of imipenem unsusceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, the average time of patients treated with more than one antimicrobial (20.0 ± 9.5 days, n = 16) was significantly longer than those treated with only one antimicrobial (12.6 ± 4.4 days, n = 21; t-test, Welch, t = -2.9004, P < 0.01). And 32 isolates showed resistance to more than 3 classes of antimicrobials. Six PFGE clusters were identified and 26 isolates were grouped into one dominant cluster (C2). An ISpa1328 sequence insertion in oprD was detected in 33 isolates and the function of efflux was observed in all 37 isolates in the presence of a wide spectrum efflux inhibitor.
Conclusions Our data demonstrated that exposure to non-carbapenem drug classes, especially fluoroquinolones and β-lactams, may be important risk factors for the spread of carbapenem resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.