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  • Author: Hong-Bin Wang x
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Application of the Haar Classifier in Obstacle Target Detection
Open access
Effects of tiletamine-xylazine-tramadol combination and its specific antagonist on AMPK in the brain of rats

Abstract

Introduction: Tiletamine-xylazine-tramadol (XFM) has few side effects and can provide good sedation and analgesia. Adenosine 5’-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) can attenuate trigeminal neuralgia. The study aimed to investigate the effects of XFM and its specific antagonist on AMPK in different regions of the brain. Material and Methods: A model of XFM in the rat was established. A total of 72 Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three equally sized groups: XFM anaesthesia (M group), antagonist (W group), and XFM with antagonist interactive groups (MW group). Eighteen SD rats were in the control group and were injected intraperitoneally with saline (C group). The rats were sacrificed and the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, thalamus, and brain stem were immediately separated, in order to detect AMPKα mRNA expression by quantitative PCR. Results: XFM was able to increase the mRNA expression of AMPKα1 and AMPKα2 in all brain regions, and the antagonist caused the opposite effect, although the effects of XFM could not be completely reversed in some areas. Conclusion: XFM can influence the expression of AMPK in the central nervous system of the rat, which can provide a reference for the future development of anaesthetics for animals.

Open access
Gasless Laparoscopic Ovariohysterectomy and Comparison of Serum Levels of Interleukin-6 and C-Reactive Protein after Lohe and Traditional Laparoscopic Ovariohysterectomy in Bitches

Abstract

Ten mixed-breed female dogs were used in the study. Abdominal wall lifting was performed with a sterilised cotton strip. Four portal sites were used to complete gasless laparoscopic ovariohysterectomy (GLOHE) procedures. The proper and suspensor ligament, ovarian pedicle, and broad ligament of the uterus, uterine artery and vein were coagulated using bipolar electrocoagulation. After the uterine body was coagulated and cut, the end of the cervix was ligated with a loop suture. Blood samples were obtained before the surgery, immediately after the procedure, and on 1, 3, and 5 d postoperatively for the determination of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP). No significant surgical complications occurred. After gasless laparoscopic ovariohysterectomy, a significantly higher serum IL-6 level was found immediately after the surgery and 1 d postoperatively when compared with the level observed after traditional laparoscopic ovariohysterectomy (LOHE). However, no significant differences were observed in CRP level between GLOHE and LOHE. GLOHE proved to be a safe and feasible procedure in bitches.

Open access
Atipamezole Attenuated Telazol/Xylazine-Induced Expression of C-Fos in Rat Thalamencephal and Cerebral Cortex

Abstract

The aim of this study was to assess whether atipamezole can restrain telazol/xylazine induced expression of c-fos in the rat brain. Rats were injected with a mixture of 13.81 mg/kg telazol and 5.21 mg/kg xylazine, following 10 min later 0.522 mg/kg atipamezole. Thereon, the thalamencephal and cerebral cortex were removed one hour after the last injection. The level of Fos protein was measured in the brain tissue by Westernblot. The results revealed that atipamezole attenuates telazol/xylazine induction of c-fos expression in the thalamencephal and cerebral cortex. The results indicated that atipamezole is able to inhibit telazol/xylazine-induced c-fos expression in the rat brain, thus protecting it from nerve damage.

Open access
Establishment of renal failure models by laparoscopy in bama pigs which underwent partial nephrectomy and radical contralateral nephrectomy

Abstract

Introduction

The miniature pig possesses unmatched advantages as an animal model because of its high homology with humans. Our experiment aimed to build a chronic renal failure (CRF) model in pigs via laparoscopy.

Material and Methods

Laparoscopic surgery was performed twice to build a CRF model. The first surgery was a left partial nephrectomy and the second was a right radical nephrectomy. Pigs were grouped by the total renal tissue to be resected: ⅔, ¾ or ⅚. Physiological parameters (rectal temperature and heart rate), haematological parameters (WBC and RBC) and renal function (serum creatinine – CR and blood urea nitrogen – BUN) were measured preoperatively and every week postoperatively.

Results

After renal resection the pigs manifested chronic renal failure. Heart rate and body temperature declined to varying degrees over 12 postoperative weeks. No significant difference was observed between the different groups. The result of renal function tests found that postoperative serum CR and BUN in all groups were continuously elevated, and the level of serum CR at two weeks post procedure differed very significantly from its preoperative value (P < 0.05). BUN was significantly elevated at one week (P < 0.05). The renal function decreased significantly faster in the ⅚ group than in the other two groups. The trend of renal function change was similar among groups, but progress was slower in the ⅔ and ¾ groups.

Conclusion

⅚ kidney resection was the optimal miniature pig model of CRF.

Open access
Exploration of the main sites for the transformation of normal prion protein (PrPC) into pathogenic prion protein (PrPsc)

Abstract

Introduction: The functions and mechanisms of prion proteins (PrPC) are currently unknown, but most experts believe that deformed or pathogenic prion proteins (PrPSc) originate from PrPC, and that there may be plural main sites for the conversion of normal PrPC into PrPSc. In order to better understand the mechanism of PrPC transformation to PrPSc, the most important step is to determine the replacement or substitution site.

Material and Methods: BALB/c mice were challenged with prion RML strain and from 90 days post-challenge (dpc) mice were sacrificed weekly until all of them had been at 160 dpc. The ultra-structure and pathological changes of the brain of experimental mice were observed and recorded by transmission electron microscopy.

Results: There were a large number of pathogen-like particles aggregated in the myelin sheath of the brain nerves, followed by delamination, hyperplasia, swelling, disintegration, phagocytic vacuolation, and other pathological lesions in the myelin sheath. The aggregated particles did not overflow from the myelin in unstained samples. The phenomenon of particle aggregation persisted all through the disease course, and was the earliest observed pathological change.

Conclusion: It was deduced that the myelin sheath and lipid rafts in brain nerves, including axons and dendrites, were the main sites for the conversion of PrPC to PrPSc, and the PrPSc should be formed directly by the conversion of protein conformation without the involvement of nucleic acids.

Open access
A Retrospective, Multi-Center, Post-Marketing Observational Study to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Ademetionine 1,4-Butanedisulfonate Injection (Transmetil®) Treatment in Chinese Patients with Intrahepatic Cholestasis Caused by Viral Hepatitis

Abstract

Obejective Ademetionine 1,4-butanedisulfonate [S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe)/Transmetil®, Abbott] has been available in China for more than 15 years, and it has been shown to reduce serum bilirubin and transaminase levels in viral hepatitis (VH) patients. However, no large-scale studies have focused on the impact of SAMe treatment regimen on reducing the serum total bilirubin (TBil) in VH patients with intrahepatic cholestasis (IHC). The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of intravenous SAMe (Transmetil®) treatment in reducing the serum TBil by 50%.

Methods This retrospective, multi-center, cross-sectional medical record review involved patients aged ≥18 years. Records of 1 280 hospitalized VH patients at 16 sites diagnosed with IHC who had received intravenous SAMe 1 000 mg or 2 000 mg q.d. for at least 7 days from January 1, 2006 to June 30, 2009, were screened and 905 records were randomly selected.

Results The safety set (SS) included 834 patients and the full analysis set 826 patients. TBil levels after 14 days injection treatment were available for 763 patients. TBil decreased ≥ 50% versus baseline after 14 days treatment in 288 (37.7%) patients (95% CI 34.3%, 41.2%). Twenty-nine non-serious adverse events (non-SAEs) were reported in 19 (2.3%) patients, and 29 SAEs were reported in 10 patients (1.2%). All adverse events (AEs) were considered unrelated to the study drug.

Conclusions This retrospective study shows that intravenous SAMe administration in VH patients with IHC is associated with significant reduction of TBil levels in more than 30% of patients 14 days after treatment initiation.

Open access