Wei Song, Huai-yuan Liu, Bin Xiang, Hong Hu, Cheng-jiang Wang and Ling-yun Wan
Zhong-ying Bao, Xiao Ming, Xiao-dong Yuan and Shu-hong Duan
The data of 35 246 patients with intestinal diseases were retrospectively analyzed, 28 cases of cholera patients were screened in 17 years, of which 23 cases had suspicious unclean food history, 10 cases were migrant workers, 8 cases had history of coastal city tour in one week. All of the 28 patients were positive for Vibrio cholerae culture, 19 cases were identified as O1 serotype Ogawa and 6 were identified as O1 serotype Inaba, 3 were identified as O139. Twenty-three patients were mild, five cases were moderate, patients with severe diseases were not found. It was found in this study that O1 serotype Vibrio cholerae was still dominant, 82% of cholera patients were mild cases. Tourists who had a incompletely heated seafood intake history and migrant people are susceptible to cholera.
Sun Li, Xiao-Lin Liu, Xie-Lai Zhou, Su-Jun Jiang and Hong Yuan
The toxic metal lead is a widespread environmental polutant that can adversely affect human health. However, the underlying mechanisms of lead-induced toxicity are still largely unknown. The mechanism of lead toxicity was presumed to involve cross reaction between Pb2+ and Ca2+ with calmodulin dependent systems. The aim of the present study was thus to identify differential expression of calmodulin-related genes in the spleen of lead-exposed mice. We performed microarray analysis to identify differentially expressed genes. RNAs from spleen tissue of lead exposed animals (n=6) and controls (n=6) were converted to labeled cRNA and hybridized to Illumina mouse WG-6_v2_Bead Chip. Expression profiles were analyzed using Illumina BeadStudio Application. Real-time RT-PCR was conducted to validate the microarray data. By microarray analysis 5 calmodulin-related genes (MAP2K6, CAMKK2, CXCR4, PHKA2, MYLK) were found to be differently expressed in lead exposed compared with control mice (p<0.05). The results of Real-time RT-PCR showed that MAP2K6 and CAMKK2 were up-regulated and CXCR4 was down-regulated in lead exposure, but there were no significant differences in PHKA2 and MYLK expression between the lead exposed and control group. These results show that lead exposure produced significant changes in expression of a variety of genes in the spleen and can affect calmodulin-related gene expression.
Yu-Ling He, Meng-Qiang Ke, Gui-Ji Tang, Hong-Chun Jiang and Xing-Hua Yuan
The intent of this paper is to investigate the effect of the interturn short circuit fault (ISCF) in rotor on the magnetic flux density (MFD) of turbo-generator. Different from other studies, this work not only pays attention to the influence of the faulty degrees on the general magnetic field, but also investigates the effect of the short circuit positions on the harmonic components of MFD. The theoretical analysis and the digital simulation through the FEM software Ansoft are performed for a QSFN-600-2YHG turbo-generator. Several significant formulas and conclusions drawn from the analysis and the simulation results are obtained to indicate the relation between the harmonic amplitude of the MFD and the faulty degree (via nm, the number of the short circuit turns), and the relation between the MFD harmonic amplitude and the faulty position (via αr, the angle of the two slots in which the interturn short circuit occurs). Also, the developing tendency of the general magnetic field intensity, the distribution of the magnetic flux lines, and the peak-to-peak value of MFD are presented.
Min Han, Qin Yu, Xuerong Liu, Fuqiang Hu and Hong Yuan
The purpose of this work was to investigate a novel aqueous dispersion (Eudragit® L100-55) f or e nteric c oating o f drugs. Three different casting solutions, Eudragit® L100-55 aqueous dispersion, Eudragit® L 100-55 o rganic s olution, and Eudragit® L30D-55 aqueous dispersion, were used to prepare free films by the casting method. Drug-loaded pellets, prepared by the extrusion-spheronization method, were coated with one of these three coating solutions using the fluidized-bed spray coating technology. Properties of the free films were thoroughly investigated. Films formed by Eudragit® L100-55 aqueous dispersions showed similar properties to those formed by Eudragit® L100-55 organic solution regarding thermodynamic properties, moisture permeability, solubility and acid tolerance ability. Furthermore, the performance of the novel film was better than that formed by Eudragit® L30D-55 aqueous dispersion. Among the three enteric coating solutions, Eudragit® L100- 55 aqueous dispersion will be a promising aqueous dispersion for enteric coating and can be used in the development of enteric-coated preparations.
Xi-Lin Liu, Xiao-Li Feng, Guang-Ming Wang, Bin-Bin Gong, Waqas Ahmad, Nan-Nan Liu, Yuan-Yuan Zhang, Li Yang, Hong-Lin Ren and Shu-Sen Cui
Introduction: The functions and mechanisms of prion proteins (PrPC) are currently unknown, but most experts believe that deformed or pathogenic prion proteins (PrPSc) originate from PrPC, and that there may be plural main sites for the conversion of normal PrPC into PrPSc. In order to better understand the mechanism of PrPC transformation to PrPSc, the most important step is to determine the replacement or substitution site.
Material and Methods: BALB/c mice were challenged with prion RML strain and from 90 days post-challenge (dpc) mice were sacrificed weekly until all of them had been at 160 dpc. The ultra-structure and pathological changes of the brain of experimental mice were observed and recorded by transmission electron microscopy.
Results: There were a large number of pathogen-like particles aggregated in the myelin sheath of the brain nerves, followed by delamination, hyperplasia, swelling, disintegration, phagocytic vacuolation, and other pathological lesions in the myelin sheath. The aggregated particles did not overflow from the myelin in unstained samples. The phenomenon of particle aggregation persisted all through the disease course, and was the earliest observed pathological change.
Conclusion: It was deduced that the myelin sheath and lipid rafts in brain nerves, including axons and dendrites, were the main sites for the conversion of PrPC to PrPSc, and the PrPSc should be formed directly by the conversion of protein conformation without the involvement of nucleic acids.
Guo-li Lin, Hong Shi, Yuan-kai Wu, Xiang-yong Li, Jian-hua Huang and Wei-min Ke
Tie-long Zheng, Ping-an Wang, Dian-li Wang, Cheng-fu Sun, Yuan Hong, Qi Wang and Jun Cheng
Objective To observe the biological function of human 3-hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase (HIBADH).
Methods Human 3-hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase (HIBADH, 3-hydroxy-2-methyl propanoate: NAD+ oxidoreductase) recombinant protein was expressed in E. coli BL21, and purified by Ni+ column. The special antisera was obtained from rabbits immunized by this purified antigen. On the distribution of HIBADH, it was found that HIBADH over-expressed in the injured liver cells when serious hepatitis occurred. The phenomenon was confirmed in the animal models of SD rats with acute liver cell injury induced by CCl4, but this phenomenon did not exist in the models induced by endotoxin combined with galactosamine. Further more, HIBADH’s overexpression in liver cells will induce cell necrosis through the pathway of oxidative stress.
Results When the liver cells injured by drug or other chemical materials, HIBADH will be compensationally over-expressed for the deficiency of energy, so liver cells can make enough ATP through brand-chain amino acid catabolism. However, the overexpression of HIBADH will be harmful for liver cells through the product of much more active oxygens which will induce the cell necrosis.
Conclusions HIBADH over-expression is a signal of the liver cell metabolism injury, and it can aggravate the liver cell injury through oxidative stress.
Ren-wen Zhang, Yong Qiao, Xiao-hua Hao, Hong-min Li, Hui Ren, Xiao-jing Zhang, Hong-shan Wei and Xiao-yuan Xu
Objective To construct the prokaryotic expression vector pET-32a(+)-C2orf69 and induce the expression of recombinant proteins in vitro. Then the possible effects of recombinant protein on cell proliferation was observed and rabbit-anti-C2orf69 protein polyclonal antibodies was obtained.
Methods Gene fragment of C2orf69 was amplified by PCR and then prokaryotic expression plasmid pET-32a(+)-C2orf69 was constructed. Recombinant protein C2orf69 expression was identified by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. The white-ear rabbits were immunized with purified recombinant protein C2orf69, and the potency and specificity of polyclonal antibody were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot. Also, different liver cells were incubated with recombinant protein C2orf69 in vitro.
Results C2orf69 gene fragment was successfully amplified, results of gene sequencing were consistent with the sequence in GenBank. Recombinant protein of C2orf69 was successfully induced and expressed. The polyclonal antibody titer was up to 1︰1 280 000 through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results of cell proliferation showed that the recombinant protein could inhibit the proliferation of different liver cells.
Conclusions The recombinant protein C2orf69 could inhibit the proliferation of different liver cells, and we speculated that it may be a widely roled inhibitor of hepatocyte proliferation. Our experiment showed that the proliferation inhibition of cells may be realized by G1 phase extending and S phase shortening.
Chun-ling Liu, Jun Cheng, He Gao, Bo Zhang, Qun Yuan, Ao Tong, Yi-an Liang, Hong Tang and Xiao-hong Guan
Objective To investigate the epidemiologic features of an outbreak of SARS that occurred in a single diabetes room of a general hospital in Beijing in late March 2003.
Methods Field investigation was carried out in the ward, the nursing log and the hospitalization medical record of correlative patients were consulted. SARS-CoV in serum specimen from SARS patient was detected by PCR.
Results The room where SARS outbreak occurred was on the 13th floor of the 16-story main ward building. There were 6 beds in the room, living with 6 female patients (aged 45-67) who were all hospitalized due to type 2 diabetes. On March 24, 2003, Patient 1 began to have a fever and cough, chest X-ray showed pneumonia. Five and six days later, Patient 2 and Patient 3 began to have a fever, respectively. Finally, all of these 3 patients died. Their beds were all at the same side of the room, and the other 3 patients at the opposite side were not infected. Serum SARS CoV-RNA of the Patient 3 was positive by nest-PCR. The daughter-in-law of Patient 1 who accompanied Patient 1 by the bedside several days, mainly near the window, upwind of Patient 1, was not infected. Medical staff, family members and visitors of the 6 patients were not infected.
Conclusions This outbreak was not transmitted by aerosol. The distance droplets travels could be up to 3.43 meters. Droplet spread has direction, and the droplets direction of propagation is closely related with the wind direction and speed. Those at the downwind position of SARS patients were susceptible to be infected. Medical staff wore face masks and good natural ventilation of this ward building may be important reasons for the prevention of infection.