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  • Author: Hong Du x
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Jing Du, Lian Fang Du, Feng Hua Li, Xiao Zhi Zheng, Hong Li Li, Qiu Sheng Shi and Ying Wu

Abstract

Background: Ocular disorders have greatest potential for benefit from gene therapy. The major obstacle in the clinical application of gene therapy is not due to the lack of an ideal gene, but rather the lack of a clinically safe and efficient gene transfer method. Ultrasound (US) targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD)-mediated gene delivery system as a noninvasive gene transfer method is now widely used in gene therapy of cardiovascular disease, muscular tissue, and tumor, and proved to effectively enhance gene transfer in various studies in vitro and in vivo. However, it is just the beginning of application for ophthalmological disease.

Objective: Review the latest advancements in UTMD-mediated ocular gene transfection and discuss mechanisms of UTMD involved in gene transfection, obstacles, and limitations to the use of this technology, as well as the perspectives for future applications of UTMD-mediated gene delivery system.

Methods: Summarize published literature concerning UTMD-mediated ocular gene transfection.

Results: UTMD is an effective and safe gene delivery method of therapy for ocular diseases. Considerable progress has been made in US or UTMD-mediated viral and nonviral ocular gene delivery to retina, like recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) and nanoparticles as nonviral gene carriers. In addition, UTMD has potential for producing the blood-retinal barrier opening and serves as a promising method for intravenous ocular gene delivery.

Conclusion: UTMD-mediated gene delivery system could effectively enhance gene transfer into ocular tissue. Though several problems remain to be solved, UTMD is a promising technology for the targeted gene therapy of ocular disease.

Open access

Hong Du, Jing Li, Hai-tao Yu, Wei Jiang, Ye Zhang, Jun-ning Wang, Ping-zhong Wang and Xue-fan Bai

Abstract

Objective To observe the application of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) and heparin anticoagulation in patients with HFRS, and to explore a more suitable anticoagulant strategy.

Methods Eighty-five severe-type patients (severe group) and 71 critical-type patients (critical group) were enrolled in this study. The frequency of CRRT was compared between the two groups; the frequency of CRRT treated with and without heparin anticoagulation and the frequency of hemorrhage and channel blood clotting induced by the two anticoagulant strategies were observed.

Results The frequency of CRRT in the critical group was higher than that in the severe group (P < 0.001). The frequency of CRRT initiated during the overlapping phases in the critical group was significantly higher than that of the severe group (P = 0.032). The total times of CRRT was 103, and 70 of them were treated with heparin anticoagulation. The frequencies of hemorrhage induced by heparin anticoagulation and no heparinization were 16 and 0, respectively, and the frequencies of channel blood clotting were 2 and 4, respectively.

Conclusions CRRT has been used extensively in the critical-type patients with HFRS. The heparin anticoagulation and no anticoagulant strategies should be used more rationally in patients treated with CRRT, according to the clinical characteristics of the disease.