To investigate the patient safety culture regarding intravenous therapy in parts of tertiary hospitals in Guangzhou, China.
A cross-sectional survey was conducted. A total of 333 medical staffs members from eight hospitals in Guangzhou were included in our study using convenience sampling. An evaluation about the patient safety culture regarding intravenous therapy was conducted.
The summarized results show that the total and level one items’ scores are greater than 4.3 points (the full mark is 5 points). The lowest scoring of the five level one items is for the hospital’s security resources (4.53±0.526), and the highest is for the hospital’s safety management commitment (4.65±0.445). Among the 25 secondary entries, the four lowest-scoring entries are “doctors who can master the knowledge of drug efficacy and adverse reactions” (4.44±0.622), “doctors who can master the knowledge of the choice of medicine” (4.45±0.621), “a guarantee of sufficient human resources” (4.46±0.647), and “doctors who can master the knowledge related to the observation and complications with the treatment of intravenous therapy operation” (4.435±0.634).
The patient safety culture regarding intravenous treatment in parts of tertiary hospitals in Guangzhou is promising, but there are still shortcomings, including the need to increase relevant resources, such as equipment facilities, training resources, and especially human input.
The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the anti–diabetic efficacy of feeding diets supplemented with okara and soybean bran to ICR mice with experimentally–induced type 2 diabetes. While okara and soybean bran are from the same source, there is no performed research comparing the effects of these soybean byproducts on glycemic status. Normal and streptozotocin–induced type 2 diabetic ICR mice were assigned either to a normal diet in the normal control group, a high fat diet only in the diabetic control group, a high fat diet supplemented with 15% okara in the okara group, a high fat diet supplemented with 15% soybean bran in the soybean bran group or a high–fat diet supplemented with 0.1% metformin in the metformin group for 8 weeks. The biochemical parameters, the organs relative weights and liver histological structure of mice were determined. Okara was significantly effective in controlling hyperglycemia and improving glucose tolerance. Moreover, the antihyperglycemic effect of okara was broadly comparable with the actions of metformin. Feeding okara and soybean bran caused hypolipidemic effects. In addition, they had a strong cytoprotective effect on hepatocytes. Soybean bran seemed more efficient than okara in alleviating hepatic cell histological changes. Results demonstrated the potential benefit of okara and soybean bran in glycemic control and reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes complications.
Comparison of survival of patients receiving laparoscopic and open radical resection for stage II colon cancer
Background. The aim of the study was to compare the survival of patients receiving laparoscopic vs. open radical resection for stage II colon cancer.
Patients and methods. Two hundred and twenty patients with stage II colon cancer were enrolled from Beijing Chaoyang Hospital of Capital Medical University from January 2000 to December 2009, including 61 patients in the laparoscopic radical resection group and 159 patients in the open radical resection group. The survival data in both groups were compared using the log rank test based on Kaplan-Meier survival curves.
Results. There was no statistically significant difference in the 3-year survival (88.5% vs. 80.5%; X2=1.98, P=0.159) and the 5-year survival (81.9% vs. 69.2%; X2=1.98, P=0.159) between both groups. However, statistically significant difference was found in median overall survival (mOS), which was 102.6 (95% CI: 76.8-122.7) months in the laparoscopic group and 90.0 (95% CI: 70.4-109.6) months in the open radical resection group (X2=4.183, P=0.041). mOS was 96 (95% CI: 68.6-111.4) months and 92.6 (95% CI: 56.8-107.2) months in those with and without postoperative chemotherapy, respectively (X2=6.389, P=0.011). For patients older than 75 years the mOS was 90.0 (95% CI: 25.3-105.0) months and 83.4 (95% CI: 13.1-96.9) months in the laparoscopic and open group, respectively. The difference between the both groups was statistically significant (X2=6.191, P=0.013).
Conclusions. The mOS of patients receiving laparoscopic radical resection was better than open radical resection for stage II colon cancer, especially for patients over 75 years old.
The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo performance of salbutamol sulfate press-coated tablets for delayed release. The in vitro release behavior of press-coated tablets with the outer layer of PEG 6000/ Eudragit S100 blends (2:1) in pH 1.2 (0.1 mol L-1 HCl) and then pH 6.8 buffer solution was examined. Morphological change of the press-coated tablet during in vitro release was recorded with a digital camera. Release of salbutamol sulfate from press-coated tablets was less than 5 % before 3 h and was completed after 8 h in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer solution. In vivo gamma scintigraphy study carried out on healthy men indicated that the designed system released the drug in lower parts of the GI tract after a lag time of 5 hours. The results showed the capability of the system of achieving delayed release of the drug in both in vitro and in vivo gamma scintigraphy studies.
Objective To identify the risk factors for imipenem resistance development and transmission of clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates.
Methods Thirty-seven imipenem unsusceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates collected from patients in absence of carbapenem treatment were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility test, pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and carbapenem resistant mechanism analysis.
Results Before the collection of imipenem unsusceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, the average time of patients treated with more than one antimicrobial (20.0 ± 9.5 days, n = 16) was significantly longer than those treated with only one antimicrobial (12.6 ± 4.4 days, n = 21; t-test, Welch, t = -2.9004, P < 0.01). And 32 isolates showed resistance to more than 3 classes of antimicrobials. Six PFGE clusters were identified and 26 isolates were grouped into one dominant cluster (C2). An ISpa1328 sequence insertion in oprD was detected in 33 isolates and the function of efflux was observed in all 37 isolates in the presence of a wide spectrum efflux inhibitor.
Conclusions Our data demonstrated that exposure to non-carbapenem drug classes, especially fluoroquinolones and β-lactams, may be important risk factors for the spread of carbapenem resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Introduction: The functions and mechanisms of prion proteins (PrPC) are currently unknown, but most experts believe that deformed or pathogenic prion proteins (PrPSc) originate from PrPC, and that there may be plural main sites for the conversion of normal PrPC into PrPSc. In order to better understand the mechanism of PrPC transformation to PrPSc, the most important step is to determine the replacement or substitution site.
Material and Methods: BALB/c mice were challenged with prion RML strain and from 90 days post-challenge (dpc) mice were sacrificed weekly until all of them had been at 160 dpc. The ultra-structure and pathological changes of the brain of experimental mice were observed and recorded by transmission electron microscopy.
Results: There were a large number of pathogen-like particles aggregated in the myelin sheath of the brain nerves, followed by delamination, hyperplasia, swelling, disintegration, phagocytic vacuolation, and other pathological lesions in the myelin sheath. The aggregated particles did not overflow from the myelin in unstained samples. The phenomenon of particle aggregation persisted all through the disease course, and was the earliest observed pathological change.
Conclusion: It was deduced that the myelin sheath and lipid rafts in brain nerves, including axons and dendrites, were the main sites for the conversion of PrPC to PrPSc, and the PrPSc should be formed directly by the conversion of protein conformation without the involvement of nucleic acids.