Introduction: A model of fatty liver in postpartum sheep was established to measure blood paraoxonase 1 (PON1) and other biochemical indicators, which were used to predict fatty liver in sheep.
Material and Methods: Sheep were assigned into two experimental groups: a fatty liver group (T, n = 10) and a healthy control group (C, n = 5). PON1 enzyme activity towards paraoxon as a substrate was quantified spectrophotometrically. The results were analysed by t-test and pearson correlation coefficient. Disease was predicted by binary logistic analysis, and diagnostic thresholds were determined by receiver operatingcharacteristic (ROC) analysis.
Results: The activity of serum PON1 in group T was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) when compared with C group, and liver lipid content and the levels of serum BHBA, NEFA, and TG were significantly increased (P < 0.05). Thresholds were lower than 74.0 U/mL for PON1, higher than 0.97 mmol/L for β-hydroxybutyrate, higher than 1.29 mmol/L for non-esterified fatty acids, higher than 0.24 mmol/L for triglycerides, and lower than 71.35 g/L for total protein.
Conclusion: This study verified that PON1, BHBA, NEFA, TG, and TP could be used to predict the risk of fatty liver in sheep.
Introduction: The predictive value of selected parameters in the risk of ketosis and fatty liver in dairy cows was determined.
Material and Methods: In total, 21 control and 17 ketotic Holstein Friesian cows with a β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentration of 1.20 mmol/L as a cut-off point were selected. The risk prediction thresholds for ketosis were determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis.
Results: In the ketosis group, paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) activity and concentration of PON-1 and glucose (GLU) were decreased, and aminotransferase (AST) activity as well as BHBA and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) contents were increased. The plasma activity and concentration of PON-1 were significantly positively correlated with the level of plasma GLU. The plasma activity and concentration of PON-1 were significantly negatively correlated with the levels of AST and BHBA. According to ROC curve analysis, warning indexes of ketosis were: plasma PON-1 concentration of 46.79 nmol/L, GLU concentration of 3.04 mmol/L, AST concentration of 100 U/L, and NEFA concentration of 0.82 mmol/L.
Conclusion: This study showed that the levels of PON-1, GLU, AST, and NEFA could be used as indicators to predict the risk of ketosis in dairy cows.
Background: Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are protected in rats with acute elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) by Erigeron breviscapus (vant.) hand-mazz (EBHM). However, it is unclear whether EBHM has neuroprotective effect on RGCs in animal with chronic elevated IOP.
Objective: Investigate the protective effect of EBHM extract on RGCs in rabbits with chronic elevated IOP.
Methods: Unilateral chronic elevated IOP was produced in rabbits by repeated injection of 2% methylcellulose into the anterior chamber. Secondary degeneration was measured with and without EBHM extract treatment for 60 days. At 60 days, the cells density of the RGCs layer, the thickness of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), and the optic nerve axons were observed and analyzed using an image analysis system. The ultrastructural changes of RGCs and optic nerve axons were observed using transmission electron microscopy.
Results: Compared with their contralateral control eyes with normal IOP, in the retinas of 3-4 mm from the optic disc, the cells density of the RGCs layer in the eyes with chronic elevated IOP was 23.2±6.5 cells (n = 6) and 36.0±8.9 cells (n = 10) per three 400x fields at 60 days in untreated and EBHM-treated group, respectively. The RNFL thickness in eyes with chronic elevated IOP was 3.4±0.4 μm (n = 6) and 5.0±1.0 μm (n = 10) at 60 days in untreated and EBHM-treated group, respectively. The axons number per 15057.8 μm2 in eyes with chronic elevated IOP was 370.4±41.0 (n = 6) and 439.0±50.8 (n = 10) at 60 days in untreated and EBHM-treated group, respectively. The number of the organelles in RGCs plasm appeared decreased and mitochondrion vacuolated in the elevated IOP eyes of EBHM-treated group, while some dispersive mitochondrion and rough surfaced endoplasmic reticulum and ribosome still existed in the RGCs plasm. The myelin sheath plates condensed and degenerated, and the microfilaments and microtubules decreased or disappeared in the elevated IOP eyes, but the axons degeneration in the chronic elevated IOP with EBHM treatment was less than that in the chronic elevated IOP without treatment.
Conclusion: EBHM extract provided a neuroprotective effect on retinal ganglion cells in rabbits with chronic elevated IOP.
In this research work, thermal properties of plain woven fabrics generated from regenerated bamboo and cotton fiber blended yarns were investigated. Seven mixtures of fiber (100% bamboo, 100% cotton, 10:90 bamboo: cotton, 20:80 bamboo: cotton, 30:70 bamboo: cotton, 40:60 bamboo: cotton and 50:50 bamboo: cotton) were developed to create 60 Tex ring spun yarn. The warp yarns were used as 100% regenerated bamboo and the bamboo: cotton blends were used alternatively in weft to produce plain woven fabrics. The plain structured woven fabrics show eminent thermal comfort properties with the blending of regenerated bamboo fibers. The air permeability of 100% regenerated bamboo fiber was recorded higher than the compared blends; the increased key factor contents of bamboo changed the air properties of the fabric. Furthermore, plain woven fabric of bamboo/cotton (50/50) has shown greater thermal conductivity and heat retention properties. The work reported in this paper is ensuring highpoints of thermal comfort properties of regenerated bamboo (100%) and cotton (100%) with plain woven structured fabrics, and potentially, the fabrics can be used for winter suiting apparel products.
Flow-injection mass spectrometry (FIMS) coupled with a chemometric method is proposed in this study to profile and distinguish between rhizomes of Smilax glabra (S. glabra) and Smilax china (S. china). The proposed method employed an electrospray-time-of-flight MS. The MS fingerprints were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) with the aid of SIMCA software. Findings showed that the two kinds of samples perfectly fell into their own classes. Further predictive study showed desirable predictability and the tested samples were successfully and reliably identified. The study demonstrated that the proposed method could serve as a powerful tool for distinguishing between S. glabra and S. china.
Detecting genetic association models between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in various disease-related genes can help to understand susceptibility to disease. Statistical tools have been widely used to detect significant genetic association models, according to their related statistical values, including odds ratio (OR), chi-square test (χ2), p-value, etc. However, the high number of computations entailed in such operations may limit the capacity of such statistical tools to detect high-order genetic associations. In this study, we propose lsGA algorithm, a genetic algorithm based on local search method, to detect significant genetic association models amongst large numbers of SNP combinations. We used two disease models to simulate the large data sets considering the minor allele frequency (MAF), number of SNPs, and number of samples. The three-order epistasis models were evaluated by chi-square test (χ2) to evaluate the significance (P-value < 0.05). Analysis results showed that lsGA provided higher chi-square test values than that of GA. Simple linear regression indicated that lsGA provides a significant advantage over GA, providing the highest β values and significant p-value.
Obejective Ademetionine 1,4-butanedisulfonate [S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe)/Transmetil®, Abbott] has been available in China for more than 15 years, and it has been shown to reduce serum bilirubin and transaminase levels in viral hepatitis (VH) patients. However, no large-scale studies have focused on the impact of SAMe treatment regimen on reducing the serum total bilirubin (TBil) in VH patients with intrahepatic cholestasis (IHC). The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of intravenous SAMe (Transmetil®) treatment in reducing the serum TBil by 50%.
Methods This retrospective, multi-center, cross-sectional medical record review involved patients aged ≥18 years. Records of 1 280 hospitalized VH patients at 16 sites diagnosed with IHC who had received intravenous SAMe 1 000 mg or 2 000 mg q.d. for at least 7 days from January 1, 2006 to June 30, 2009, were screened and 905 records were randomly selected.
Results The safety set (SS) included 834 patients and the full analysis set 826 patients. TBil levels after 14 days injection treatment were available for 763 patients. TBil decreased ≥ 50% versus baseline after 14 days treatment in 288 (37.7%) patients (95% CI 34.3%, 41.2%). Twenty-nine non-serious adverse events (non-SAEs) were reported in 19 (2.3%) patients, and 29 SAEs were reported in 10 patients (1.2%). All adverse events (AEs) were considered unrelated to the study drug.
Conclusions This retrospective study shows that intravenous SAMe administration in VH patients with IHC is associated with significant reduction of TBil levels in more than 30% of patients 14 days after treatment initiation.