Liver cirrhosis is a worldwide gastroenterological condition, characterized by a slow, progressive and irreversible replacement of liver cells by fibrous tissue (scar) that prevents liver function. This condition often leads to the development of other syndromes. Cardiac complications can be indicated through abnormal QTc interval and arrhythmias, thereby their analysis aids in the prevention of cardiovascular events. Most cirrhotic cases have abnormal laboratory values (bilirubin, albumin, AST, ALT, AST/ALT, INR) indicating the presence of concomitant infection, inflammation and coagulopathy. In this case report, the usage Halstead-Reitan and Child-Pugh score helped in the assessment of the status of deterioration of brain. The knowledge of liver cirrhosis aetiologies help to determine the predisposition to development of hepatic encephalopathy and cardiomyopathy. The different values of liver enzymes and other blood laboratory analyses indicated the level of liver damage and poor prognosis.
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) research has long been impeded by the vague definition of this disabling complication of liver failure. This article provides an overview of the etiology and impact of HE on neuromuscular functions as well as its role in the development of infections and anemia.
Materials and Methods
This was a descriptive study conducted in 36 patients with HE. Close monitoring of these patients was done by checking on several parameters.
The etiological distribution: alcohol (67%), hepatitis C virus (HCV; 17%), HCV and alcohol (8%), hepatitis B virus (HBV; 3%), HBV and alcohol (3%), HBV and HCV (6%), and cryptogenic (3%). The laboratory results indicated an elevation of De Ritis level in 69% of cases and in 92% of total bilirubin values. The Halstead-Reitan (H-R) test score with regards to gender indicated that more than half of the patients had a score of 2, while only few cases received the scores 3 and 4. The frequency of H-R score with regards to Child-Pugh score showed the significant preponderance of Child-Pugh score of 7–9 (B): 58.3% compared to others groups of results, and these results indicated patients’ poor prognosis.
Findings showed the preponderance of female patients towards developing HE and the poor survival rate of patients older than 65 years. Alcohol and hepatitis C were the main causes associated with the development of HE. The neurological assessment marked the preponderance of Child-Pugh grades B and C and also the prevalence in female patients with neuropsychological disabilities through the assessment of H-R test.
Our aim was to explore the relationship between liver cirrhosis (LC), portal hypertension (PH), and diabetes mellitus (DM). LC displayed hemodynamic alterations reflected by signs and symptoms of hypertension and hyperdynamic circulation. Portal hypertension also caused splenomegaly because of the blood flow into the spleen from the portal vessels and portal flow. The alcoholic cirrhosis displayed abnormal values (AST, ALT, AST/ALT, albumin, ammonia, bilirubin, blood platelet, erythrocytes, glucose, Hb, international normalized ratio (INR), PT, prothrombin index (PI), thymol test, white blood cell (WBC) count), which demonstrated the presence of portal hypertension, ascites, DM, infection, and coagulopathy. The evaluation of liver enzymes and other laboratories data helped to determine the severity of the condition and prognosis. Diabetes appeared to be less affecting the prognosis of patients with cirrhosis than LC itself, showing that hepatocellular failure was largely responsible for patients’ mortality rather than diabetes and its complications. Patients displayed a BMI correlating obesity, although affected by concomitant diseases that commonly cause a severe weight loss. The elevated BMI in this case was accentuated by the presence of ascitic fluid, which is responsible for the increase in weight and the inaccurate BMI evaluation. Ascites affect patients’ recovery from liver diseases. Obese patients with cirrhosis can be related to have a large amount of ascites and that physicians should be expecting to notice changes in their BMI pre- and postoperatively, subsequently making a prior classification as obese inappropriate. Disease severity could be assessed through the evaluation of PH stage, which was characterized by a significant depletion of WBC and as well as platelet counts.