Agnieszka Skurzak, Mariola Kicia, Krzysztof Wiktor, Grażyna Iwanowicz-Palus and Henryk Wiktor
This paper is a review of the literature concerning the importance of social support during pregnancy. Being pregnant is a special event in every woman’s life, since it is associated with physical and mental changes. In addition to being a physiological event, pregnancy creates a burden for the body and induces stress. Pregnant women tend to suffer from fear of the unknown, especially regarding: baby, themselves, course of delivery, the need for a new role – of a mother, economic, professional, emotional situations and relationship with partner. The diagnosis of high-risk pregnancy and the need for hospitalization increase the incidence of negative emotions and experiences such as: permanent anxiety about the child’s life, anger, sadness, doubts about the diagnosis, fear of pregnancy complications, frustration and dissatisfaction with the implementation of the functions of maternal concerns during the stay in the hospital. Anxiety and fear that appear during pregnancy affect the attitude of women in pregnancy and after childbirth.
Various authors frequently use the term “pregnancy-specific stress”. There is a relationship between concerns, stress in the mother during pregnancy and lifestyle, duration of pregnancy, and the possible complications during intrauterine and neonatal life. Social support significantly influences the quality of coping with stress in pregnant women. If a pregnant woman receives strong social support from her network, the negative emotions and concerns would be reduced. Receiving support also boosts the chances of successful pregnancy completion. The people from the immediate social network of a pregnant woman, like their partner, spouse, family, friends, midwife, doctor, are the most vital source of support.
Katarzyna Kanadys, Krzysztof Wiktor, Marzena Bucholc, Dorota Robak-Chołubek and Henryk Wiktor
Introduction. Historically, perimenopausal period was thought to be associated with mood disorders. Despite many studies, the relationship between menopause and depressed mood has not been fully explained.
Aim. The objective of the study was analysis of the level of intensity of depression among women at perimenopausal age according to sociodemographic characteristics.
Material and methods. The study covered 268 perimenopausal women who reported to outpatient departments in the city of Lublin. The criteria for the qualification of women into the study group were: age 45-55 years, lack of mental disorders and lack of diseases requiring hospitalization during the period of study. The study was conducted with the method of a diagnostic survey with the use of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and a questionnaire designed by the authors in order to collect demographic data.
Results. The mean BDI values obtained in the presented study according to respondents’ age and monthly income showed the lack of depression or mild depression in the group of the women examined. In addition, the mean level of depression according to marital status confirmed the lack of depression in the group of married women, whereas mild depression in the group of those who were single.
Conclusions. Analysis of the results of the study indicated that age and marital status were not related with the respondents’ level of depression. Women who possessed a university education had a lower level of depression, compared to those who had elementary/elementary vocational or secondary school education level. Women whose material standard was higher had a lower level of depression. Women who have a poor material standard and lower level of education should be covered by a special psycho-prophylactic care.
Katarzyna Szczekala, Katarzyna Kanadys, Krzysztof Wiktor and Henryk Wiktor
Motivational interviewing (MI) is a specific style of communication based on collaboration, aimed at achieving a goal and focused on change talk. This is conducted in an atmosphere of comprehension, acceptance and compassion, being intended to strengthen inner motivation and commitment to attain goals by the search for, and assessment of, the individual’s reasons for change. Change talk may refer to new behaviours, lifestyles or the introduction of treatment adherence. Therefore, it can be a part of health care provider – patient communication. The application of MI contributes to an increase in patients’ concordance and compliance as well as rightness of the therapy prescribed because it heightens an individual’s awareness and eagerness to change and triggers positive thinking, being focused on resources and values. The aim of this article is to familiarise the MI character and present some interesting examples characterised by a diversity of ideas in the overall vision of public health concentrated on health promotion. A non-systematic literature review of the years 2003-2018 on the use of MI in health promotion in PubMed provided evidence of great interest in MI in such contexts as body weight reduction, an increase in physical activity, or coping with risk behaviours e.g. addictions. The aforementioned problems are a major cause of non-communicable diseases. The application of MI results in health behaviour improvement along with increased self-esteem and self-efficacy, inner motivation and willingness to change habits.
Mariola Kicia, Agnieszka Skurzak, Krzysztof Wiktor, Grażyna Iwanowicz-Palus and Henryk Wiktor
Miscarriage is defined as an adverse and unexpected termination of pregnancy before the completion of 22nd week of gestation. Currently, abortion is the most common early reproductive failure. In Poland, more than 40 000 pregnant women a year lose pregnancy due to various reasons. There are many reports in literature on the risk of somatic consequences of miscarriage, while extra-somatic complications resulting from exposure to the strong influence of anxiety and stress, such as, for example: depression and psychosomatic disorders have not been paid too much attention to, yet. Abortion is accompanied by stress and a lot of negative emotions, such as anxiety. They may intensify both due to hospitalization and the need to implement treatment. These negative emotions destroy cognitive power of women, depriving them of their confidence, they can exacerbate the sense of danger, lead to stress and hinder treatment.
Katarzyna Szczekala, Krzysztof Wiktor, Katarzyna Kanadys and Henryk Wiktor
Motivational Interviewing (MI) is a collaborative, goal-oriented and focused on change, style of communication. It is characterised by the MI provider’s empathy, understanding, mental and emotional attitudes towards the patient. This non-judgemental conversation is aimed at strengthening inner motivation and commitment to attain the goal and is based solely on the individual’s reasons for change. The initial application of MI in clinical psychology has been modified appropriately to allow for its use in health care, rehabilitation, public health, social work, dentistry, social rehabilitation, coaching and education. It is recommended for introducing new behaviours, lifestyles and therapeutic adherence. The application of MI contributes to the enhancement of patient-healthcare worker communication, the patient’s concordance and compliance. On the other hand, learning and adopting this method in counselling is useful for healthcare professionals. In treatment, greater patient awareness and obedience lead to more conscientious responsibility for treatment and health, which in turn, produces better therapy outcomes that serve as confirmation of the merit of the therapy prescribed. The application of MI contributes to health professionals’ greater success, satisfaction, self-confidence and a sense of self-efficacy.
The aim of this work is to present the essential features of MI as well as some interesting examples of research showing the benefits of using MI and ideas for training it. Non-systematic literature review of the years 2005-2018 on the use of MI in health promotion in PubMed provided evidence of wide use of MI by healthcare professionals.
Marzena Bucholc, Marta Kucharczyk, Katarzyna Kanadys, Krzysztof Wiktor and Henryk Wiktor
Introduction. The cancer of the reproductive organ, due to its specificity, is an extremely difficult situation for a woman.
Aim. The aim of the study was to answer the question what are the determinants of strategies to cope with the disease among women treated for cancer of the reproductive organ.
Material and methods. The study included 102 women treated for gynecological cancer. To assess coping strategies with disease, denoting adaptation to cancer, a Mini-Mac standardized scale of the Mental Adjustment to Cancer Diseases and the own construction questionnaire were used. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi2 test, Mann-Whitney U test, W. Shapiro-Wilk, Kruskal-Wallis tests.
Results. Research shows that most respondents coped with the disease using the strategy: the fighting spirit (FS), and positive reevaluation (PR), but to a lesser degree they applied preoccupation with anxiety (PwA) and helplessness – hopelessness strategy (HH).
Conclusions. 1. Most of the women fighting against cancer used constructive strategies, while the remaining part – the destructive ones. Choosing the type is determined by factors like the duration of the disease, the incidence of complications during treatment, subjective evaluation of how to improve the health status and satisfaction with treatment or length of hospital stay. 2. Strategies of mental adaptation significantly affect the course of treatment. The use of absorbing anxiety causes significantly more women not to feel the improvement of health and hospitalization for them is a traumatic experience. In contrast, a form of helplessness – hopelessness is associated with low satisfaction with treatment, and lack of improvement in subjective health. People who use fighting spirit were significantly more satisfied with the results of treatment.
Agnieszka Skurzak, Marta Zarajczyk, Grażyna Iwanowicz-Palus, Magdalena Korżyńska-Piętas, Magdalena Lewicka and Henryk Wiktor
Introduction. Satisfaction with life is a general assessment of satisfaction with one’s own achievements and living conditions on many levels. This includes human cognitive processes, expressing the emotional state that occurs as a result of achieving a specific goal. According to Juczyński, the assessment of life satisfaction is the result of confronting one’s own situation with the adopted criteria. If the result of the comparison is positive, the implication is the feeling of satisfaction. Satisfaction with life of pregnant women is dependent on many factors, including: personality traits, emotions, sociodemographic, factors as well as numerous physiological and psychological changes occurring during pregnancy.
Aim. The aim of the study is to assess the level of life satisfaction of pregnant women depending on sociodemographic factors.
Material and methods. The research was conducted on 415 women hospitalized and receiving care in counseling centers for pregnant women. The research was carried out by means of a diagnostic survey using a standardized Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) and an original questionnaire to collect demographic data.
Results. Based on the average assessment of life satisfaction, it was found that 48.43% (n = 201) of the surveyed pregnant women was characterized by a high degree of life satisfaction, 35.18% (n = 146) average, and 16.39% (n = 68) of the respondents experienced a low level of life satisfaction.
Conclusions. Sociodemographic factors conditioned the feeling of satisfaction with life of pregnant women. Pregnant women who had a greater sense of life satisfaction were: those in relationship rather than those who were single; women with higher education than those with basic, vocational or secondary education; pregnant women working mentally rather than those not working.