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Open access

Andrzej Fellner and Henryk Jafernik

Abstract

The air transport requires certificate of ground and deck devices, systems and adequate procedures. However applied geodetic techniques and measuring technologies depend on taken undertakings. If one should precisely put standard ground systems and the navigational assistance are overbalancing static geodetic techniques and measuring technologies. However operational activity, depending on the phase of the flight a real requires applying geodetic techniques and measuring Jechnologies time”. As part of conducted air tests they made the validation of four fundamental parameters (accuracy, credibility, availability, continuity) of satellite EGNOS, GNSS signals, made as part of European projects: “Support to the EGNOS APV Operational Implementation - APV MIELEC”, air tests enabled to draw right procedures up and to apply satellite signals in the air transport. Details will be presented in the following article.

Open access

Janusz Ćwiklak and Henryk Jafernik

Abstract

The paper presents analysis of bird strikes, that occurred in Polish Air Force. Data of Polish Air Force were used to analysis. Mentioned analysis concern such problems as time of day, height, kind of flight operation, severity of bird strikes. It is considered, that the results of researches can be used to determine bird strikes hazard and elaborate SMS in the context of bird strikes for military air bases.

Open access

Andrzej Fellner and Henryk Jafernik

Abstract

The article shows process of the implementation satellite systems in Polish aviation which contributed to accomplishment Performance-Based Navigation (PBN) concept. Since 1991 authors have introduced Satellite Navigation Equipment in Polish Air Forces. The studies and researches provide to the Polish Air Force alternative approaches, modernize their navigation and landing systems and achieve compatibility with systems of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Acquired experience, conducted military tests and obtained results enabled to take up work scientifically - research in the environment of the civil aviation. Therefore in 2008 there has been launched cooperation with Polish Air Navigation Services Agency (PANSA). Thanks to cooperation, there have been compiled and fulfilled three fundamental international projects: EGNOS APV MIELEC (EGNOS Introduction in European Eastern Region - APV Mielec), HEDGE (Helicopters Deploy GNSS in Europe), SHERPA (Support ad-Hoc to Eastern Region Pre-operational in GNSS). The successful completion of these projects enabled implementation 21 procedures of the RNAV GNSS final approach at Polish airports, contributing to the implementation of PBN in Poland as well as ICAO resolution A37-11. Results of conducted research which served for the implementation of satellite techniques in the air transport constitute the meaning of this material.

Open access

Andrzej Fellner, Radosław Fellner and Henryk Jafernik

Abstract

The article describes analysis of the risk for the implementation of precise approach procedures (Localizer Performance and Vertical Guidance - LPV) with GNSS sensor at airports in Warsaw and Katowice. There were used some techniques of the identification of threats (including controlled flight into terrain, landing accident, mid-air collision, missed approach, safe landing) and evaluations methods based on: Event Tree Analysis, probability of the risk, safety risk evaluation matrix and Functional Hazard Assesment. Also safety goals were determined. Research led to determine probabilities of appearing of threats, as well as allow compare them with regard to the ILS. As a result of conducting the Preliminary System Safety Assessment (PSSA), there were defined requirements essential to reach the required level of the safety. Research led to determine probabilities of appearing of threats and safety goals, as well as compare them with regard to the ILS requirements

Open access

Henryk Jafernik, Janusz Ćwiklak, Kamil Krasuski and Jarosław Kozuba

Abstract

Single Point Positioning (SPP) method is widely used in air, marine, and land navigation to determine the user’s position in real time and post factum. A typical accuracy for this method of determining the user’s position in the static mode is approximately 10 meters. In air operations, the SPP method accuracy can be several times lower and that may cause problems with precise positioning of an aircraft. The authors of this article presented preliminary results of research concerning aircraft positioning in the kinematic mode based on GPS observations. For this purpose, an in-flight experiment, in which a Cessna 172 aircraft was used, was performed at the airport in Mielec, Poland. The aircraft was equipped with a dual-frequency Topcon TPS HiperPro receiver, which was recording satellite observations with 1-second interval. The aircraft position was determined using the least-squares method (LSM) in the RTKLIB (RTKPOST module) software. Two research tests were performed within the scope of the experiment, i.e. in test I the aircraft position was determined on the basis of raw GPS observations and the broadcast ephemeris data whereas in test II precision products of the IGS were used, such as: precise ephemeris SP3, DCB hardware delay, clock bias data of GPS satellites and receivers in the CLK format, data of the ionosphere maps based on IONEX format, and phase center calibration of GPS satellites and receivers in the ANTEX format. The use of the IGS precision products improved the accuracy of the X coordinate to 1 m, Y to 0.7 m and Z to 1.3 m. On the basis of tests I and II, an additional RMS-3D parameter was determined, whose mean value was 4 m.