On March 11, 2020, the WHO declared that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can be characterized as a pandemic based on the alarming levels of spread and severity and on the alarming levels of inaction. COVID-19 has received worldwide attention as emergency, endangering international public health and economic development. There is a growing body of literatures regarding severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) as well as COVID-19. This review will focus on the latest advance of epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical characteristics about COVID-19. Meanwhile, tuberculosis (TB) remains the leading representative respiratory tract communicable disease threatening public health. There are limited data on the risk of severe disease or outcomes in patients with concurrence of TB and COVID-19. Nevertheless, co-infection of some virus would aggravate TB, such as measles. And tuberculosis and influenza co-infection compared with tuberculosis single infection was associated with increased risk of death in individuals. This review will also introduce the characteristics about the concurrence of TB and emerging infectious diseases to provide a hint to manage current epidemic.
Shell model calculations have been carried out for 90Nb nucleus with the model space in which the valence protons occupy the f5/2, p3/2, p1/2, and g9/2 orbitals and the valence neutrons occupy the p1/2, g9/2, d5/2, and g7/2 orbitals. According to the calculated results, the negative parity is from the contribution of the proton of the f5/2, p3/2, and p1/2 orbits. The moderate spin states of 90Nb are mainly due to the excitation of protons from the f5/2 and p3/2 orbits to the p1/2 and g9/2 orbits across the Z = 38 subshell closure, and the high spin states arise from the excitation of a single neutron from the g9/2 orbit into the d5/2 orbit across the N = 50 shell closure.
Perovskite (Prv) was discovered in an abyssal harzburgite from a “mélange” type blueschist-bearing accretionary wedge of the Western Carpathians (Meliata Unit, Slovakia). Perovskite-1 formation in serpentinized orthopyroxene may be simplified by the mass-balance reaction: Ca2Si2O6 (Ca-pyroxene-member)+2Fe2TiO4 (ulvöspinel molecule in spinel)+2H2O+O2=2CaTiO3 (Prv)+2SiO2+4FeOOH (goethite). Perovskite-2 occurs in a chlorite-rich blackwall zone separating serpentinite and rodingite veins, and in rodingite veins alone. The bulk-rock trace-element patterns suggest negligible differences from visually and microscopically less (“core”) to strongly serpentinized harzburgite due to serpentinization and rodingitization: an enrichment in LREE(La,Ce), Cs, ±Ba, U, Nb, Pb, As, Sb, ±Nd and Li in comparison with HREE, Rb and Sr. The U/Pb perovskite ages at ~135 Ma are interpreted to record the interaction of metamorphic fluids with harzburgite blocks in the Neotethyan Meliatic accretionary wedge. Our LA-ICP-MS mineral study provides a complex view on trace element behaviour during the two stages of rodingitization connected with Prv genesis. The positive anomalies of Cs, U, Ta, Pb, As, Sb, Pr and Nd in Cpx, Opx and Ol are combined with the negative anomalies of Rb, Ba, Th, Nb and Sr in these minerals. The similar positive anomalies of Cs, U, Ta, ±Be, As, Sb found in typical serpentinization and rodingitization minerals, with variable contents of La, Ce and Nd, and negative anomalies of Rb, Ba, Th, Nb and Sr suggest involvement of crustal fluids during MP-LP/LT accretionary wedge metamorphism. LA-ICP-MS study revealed strong depletion in LREE from Prv-1 to Prv-2, and a typically negative Eu (and Ti) anomaly for Prv-1, while a positive Eu (and Ti) anomaly for Prv-2. Our multi-element diagram depicts enrichment in U, Nb, La, Ce, As, Sb, Pr, Nd and decreased Rb, Ba, Th, Ta, Pb, Sr, Zr in both Prv generations. In general, both Prv generations are very close to the end-member composition. In spite of low concentrations of isomorphic constituents, Prv-1 and Prv-2 display the A(La,Ce)3++B(Fe,Cr)3+=ACa2++BTi4+ heterovalent couple substitution. A decrease of ferric iron in Prv-2 indicates increasing reduction conditions during rodingitization.
Background: Decompressing craniectomy (DC) is an important method for the management of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI).
Objective: To analyze the effect of prophylactic DC within 24 hours after head trauma TBI.
Methods: Seventy-two patients undergoing prophylactic DC for severe TBI were included in this retrospective study. Both of the early and late outcomes were studied and the prognostic factors were analyzed.
Results: In this series, cumulative death in the first 30 days after DC was 26%, and 28 (53%) of 53 survivors in the first month had a good outcomes. The factors including Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) score at admission, whether the patient had an abnormal pupil response and whether the midline shift was greater than 5 mm were most important prognostic factors for the prediction of death in the first 30 days and the final outcome at 6 months after DC.
Conclusion: Prophylactic DC plays an important role in the management of highly elevated ICP, especially when other methods of reduction of ICP are unavailable.
In order to identify high-speed navigation ability of trimaran planing hull, as well as investigate the characteristics of its resistance and hull form, ship model tests were conducted to measure resistance, trim and heaving under different displacements and gravity centre locations. The test results were then used to study the influence of spray strips on resistance and sea-keeping qualities. Moreover, different planing surfaces were compared in the model tests which helped to look into influence of steps on hull resistance and its moving position. Also, the resistance features of monohull and trimaran planing hulls, both with and without steps, were compared to each other. From the tests it can be concluded that: the two auxiliary side hulls increase aerodynamic lift at high-speed motion, which improves the hydrodynamic performance; the trimaran planing hull has also excellent longitudinal stability and low wave-making action; when Fr∇ > 8, its motion is still stable and two distinct resistance peaks and two changes of sailing state (the second change is smaller) appear; spray strips are favourable for sea-keeping qualities at high speed. The change trends before the second resistance peak as to the resistance and sailing behaviour of trimaran planing hull without steps are the same as for monohull planing hull without steps. but when steps in both hulls exist the change trends are different; more specifically: trimaran planing hull with steps has only one resistance peak and its resistance increases along with its speed increasing, and the resistance is improved at the increasing speed as the number of steps increases.