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Robin Room, Anne-Marie Laslett and Heng Jiang

Abstract

While there is a longer history of concern about alcohol’s harm to others, researchers’ interest has intensified in the last few years. The background of variation in concern over time in different societies is outlined. Three main traditions of research have emerged: population survey studies of such harm from the perspective of the ‘other’; analysis of register or case-record data which includes information on the involvement of another’s drinking in the case; and qualitative studies of interactions and experiences involved in particular harms from others’ drinking. In the course of the new spate of studies, many conceptual and methodological issues have arisen, some of which are considered in the paper. The diverse types of harms which have been studied are discussed. The social and personal nature of many of the harms means they do not fit easily into a disability or costing model, raising questions about how they might best be counted and aggregated. Harm from others’ drinking is inherently interactional, and subject to varying definitions of what counts as harm. The attribution to drinking, in the usual situation of conditional causation, is also subject to variation, with moral politics potentially coming into play. For measurement and comparison, account needs to be taken of cultural and individual variations in perceptions and thresholds of what counts as a harm, and attribution to alcohol. The view from the windows of a population survey and of a response agency case register are often starkly different, and research is needed, as an input and spur to policy initiatives, on what influences this difference and whether and how the views might be reconciled.

Open access

Jin Wang, Juan Liu, Yongheng Chen, Gang Song, Diyun Chen, Tangfu Xiao, Huosheng Li, Chunlin Wang and Feng Jiang

Abstract

Four soil profiles were collected from locations with different distances (5, 50, 250 and 1000 m) from a uranium mill tailings dam, Guangdong province, China, to investigate the pollution status of the soil in mining/milling-related areas based on the contents of uranium (U) and thorium (Th), thus to understand the impacts of uranium industrial activities to the surroundings. The U and Th concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after conventional HF-HNO3-HClO4 digestion procedures. The results indicate that the soils within 50 m from uranium tailing were severely contaminated; those in 250 and 1000 m soil samples were observed to be with local background level even though these in 250 m had slightly higher U/Th ratios. Uranium concentrations varied from 5.50 ± 0.27 to 160.55 ± 8.03 mg/kg, with maximum values recorded in an intermediate layer of the 5-m distance soil profile. In comparison, the concentration of Th ranged from 6.02 ± 0.30 to 84.71 ± 4.24 mg/kg, with maximum values observed in the top layer of the 1000-m distance soil profile. The U/Th ratio varied from 0.15 to 11.99 compared with 0.20, 0.22 and 0.26 of the average for Guangdong province, national China and the world, respectively. The mean U/Th of four soil profiles showed a reduction with distance from the uranium mill tailing dam, suggesting the relatively large magnitude of uranium elevation in soils within limited distances.

Open access

Jiang-Biao Gong, Liang Wen, Ren-Ya Zhan, Heng-Jun Zhou, Fang Wang, Gu Li and Xiao-Feng Yang

Abstract

Background: Decompressing craniectomy (DC) is an important method for the management of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI).

Objective: To analyze the effect of prophylactic DC within 24 hours after head trauma TBI.

Methods: Seventy-two patients undergoing prophylactic DC for severe TBI were included in this retrospective study. Both of the early and late outcomes were studied and the prognostic factors were analyzed.

Results: In this series, cumulative death in the first 30 days after DC was 26%, and 28 (53%) of 53 survivors in the first month had a good outcomes. The factors including Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) score at admission, whether the patient had an abnormal pupil response and whether the midline shift was greater than 5 mm were most important prognostic factors for the prediction of death in the first 30 days and the final outcome at 6 months after DC.

Conclusion: Prophylactic DC plays an important role in the management of highly elevated ICP, especially when other methods of reduction of ICP are unavailable.

Open access

Tian-wen Ma, Yue Li, Guan-ying Wang, Xin-ran Li, Ren-li Jiang, Xiao-peng Song, Zhi-heng Zhang, Hui Bai, Xin Li and Li Gao

Abstract

Introduction: The study aimed to clarify the changes in the concentration of inflammatory mediators, proteases, and cartilage degradation biomarkers in the synovial fluid of joints in an equine osteoarthritis model.

Material and Methods: Osteoarthritis was induced in eight Mongolian horses by a sterile intra-articular injection of amphotericin B, which was injected into the left carpal joint in a dose of 2 mL (25 mg/mL). The control group comprised five horses which were injected with an equal dose of sterile physiological saline into the left carpal joint. Synovial fluid was obtained at baseline and every week after injection. Test methods were based on ELISA.

Results: In the course of the osteoarthritis, the concentration of biomarkers in joint synovial fluid showed an increasing trend. IL-1, IL-6, MMP-9, MMP-13, ADAMTS-5, CS846, GAG, HA, CTX-II, and COMP concentrations sharply increased before the onset of significant symptoms of lameness, whereas TNF-α, MMP-2, and MMP-3 concentrations rose sharply after the occurrence of such symptoms.

Conclusion: The results obtained confirm that the concentrations of IL-1, IL-6, MMP-9, MMP-13, ADAMTS-5, CS846, GAG, HA, CTX-II and COMP increase substantially in equine osteoarthritis, which provides a theoretical basis for the rapid diagnosis of the disease.