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  • Author: Hassan M. Soliman x
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Open access

Amr Mohamed Elazhary and Hassan M. Soliman

Abstract

An experimental study was conducted in order to investigate two-phase flow regimes and fully developed pressure drop in a mini-size, horizontal rectangular channel. The test section was machined in the form of an impacting tee junction in an acrylic block (in order to facilitate visualization) with a rectangular cross-section of 1.87-mm height on 20-mm width on the inlet and outlet sides. Pressure drop measurement and flow regime identification were performed on all three sides of the junction. Air-water mixtures at 200 kPa (abs) and room temperature were used as the test fluids. Four flow regimes were identified visually: bubbly, plug, churn, and annular over the ranges of gas and liquid superficial velocities of 0.04 ≤ JG ≤ 10 m/s and 0.02 ≤ JL ≤ 0.7 m/s, respectively, and a flow regime map was developed. Accuracy of the pressure-measurement technique was validated with single-phase, laminar and turbulent, fully developed data. Two-phase experiments were conducted for eight different inlet conditions and various mass splits at the junction. Comparisons were conducted between the present data and former correlations for the fully developed two-phase pressure drop in rectangular channels with similar sizes. Wide deviations were found among these correlations, and the correlations that agreed best with the present data were identified.

Open access

Nayera E Hassan, Sahar A El-Masry, Nadia L Soliman, Mona M El-Batran, Muhammad Al-Tohamy, Salwa R El-Batrawy and Mehrevan M Abd El-Moniem

Abstract

Background: Childhood obesity increases risk for developing cardio-metabolic diseases.

Objectives: to investigate the relation of some anthropometric parameters with cardio-metabolic disease risk factors in obese children and adolescents.

Subjects and Methods: Cross sectional study, comprised of 139 obese pupils; aged 8 to 16 years (classified to 3 age groups). Each pupil underwent complete physical examination, anthropometric and laboratory assessment (fasting blood sugar and lipid profile).

Results: Boys had significantly higher values of abdominal skin fold thickness in the age groups II and III and in central adiposity, waist circumference, waist/hip ratio and sub scapular skin fold thickness in adolescents. For boys, fasting blood sugar correlated with most of the anthropometric measurements in young age, and with skinfold thickness in the three age groups. While lipid profile correlated with skinfold thickness particularly at subscapular area in the age groups I and II. For girls, none of the parameters under study showed any significant correlation except subscapular skinfold thickness which had significant correlations with lipid profile in age groups I and II.

Conclusion: Skin fold thickness particularly subscapular; is important indicator for cardio-metabolic complications in obese children of both sexes. Obese boys are more liable to cardio-metabolic complications.