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Anil Kumar and Harish Kumar

Stability Studies of Torque Transducers

The present paper discusses the stability studies carried out on a small number of torque transducers over the years with capacities ranging from 10 Nm to 1000 Nm. The torque transducers have been calibrated using the torque standard machine based on the written standard calibration procedure. The study reveals that the uncertainty of measurement of torque transducers has been varying appreciably and it is more for lower range. Besides, the deviation from their average values has also been studied and found to be varying through the years.

Open access

Rajesh Kumar, Harish Kumar, Anil Kumar and Vikram

Long Term Uncertainty Investigations of 1 MN Force Calibration Machine at NPL, India (NPLI)

The present paper is an attempt to study the long term uncertainty of 1 MN hydraulic multiplication system (HMS) force calibration machine (FCM) at the National Physical Laboratory, India (NPLI), which is used for calibration of the force measuring instruments in the range of 100 kN - 1 MN. The 1 MN HMS FCM was installed at NPLI in 1993 and was built on the principle of hydraulic amplifications of dead weights. The best measurement capability (BMC) of the machine is ± 0.025% (k = 2) and it is traceable to national standards by means of precision force transfer standards (FTS). The present study discusses the uncertainty variations of the 1 MN HMS FCM over the years and describes the other parameters in detail, too. The 1 MN HMS FCM was calibrated in the years 2004, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010 and the results have been reported.

Open access

Harish Kumar, Anil Kumar and Poonam Yadav

Improved Performance of 50 kN Dead Weight Force Machine using Automation as a Tool

Continuously growing technologies and increasing quality requirements have exerted thrust to the metrological institutes to maintain a high level of calibration and measurement capabilities. Force, being very vital in various engineering and non - engineering applications, is measured by force transducers. Deviations in the values observed and mentioned in the calibration certificate for force transducers may primarily be due to the creep, time loading effect and temperature effect if not properly compensated. Beside these factors, machine interaction, parasitic components etc. pertaining to the quality of the force standard machine used for calibration also contribute to the deviations. An attempt has been made by National Physical Laboratory, India (NPLI) to automate the 50 kN dead weight force machine to minimize the influence of factors other than the factors related to the machine itself. The calibration of force transducers is carried out as per the standard calibration procedure based on standard ISO 376-2004 using the automated 50 kN dead weight force machine (cmc ± 0.003% (k=2)) under similar conditions both in manual mode and automatic mode. The metrological characterization shows improved metrological results for the force transducers when the 50 kN dead weight force machine is used in automatic mode as compared to the manual mode.

Open access

Mohammad Amir, Sadique Javed and Harish Kumar

Synthesis and biological evaluation of some 4-(1H-indol-3-yl)-6-phenyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidin-2-ones/thiones as potent anti-inflammatory agents

Twelve new 4-(1H-indol-3-yl)-6-phenyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidin-2-ones/thiones (7-18) have been synthesized by reacting 1-aryl-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-2-propen-1-one with urea and thiourea in ethanolic potassium hydroxide. Their structures have been confirmed by IR, 1H NMR and mass spectral data. The compounds were tested for their anti-inflammatory activity. Test results revealed that compounds showed 49.5 to 70.7% anti-inflammatory activity where-as the standard drug ibuprofen showed 86.4% activity at the same oral dose. Four compounds, 4-(1H-indol-3-yl)-6-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidin-2-one (8), 4-(1H-indol-3-yl)-6-(4-methylphenyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidin-2-one (10), 4-(1H-indol-3-yl)-6-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidin-2-thione (14), 4-(1H-indol-3-yl)-6-(4-methylphenyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidin-2-thione (16), that showed significant anti-inflammatory activity were selected to study their ulcerogenic and lipid peroxidation activities. All tested compounds showed significant reduction in the ulcerogenic potential and lipid peroxidation compared to the standard drug ibuprofen.

Open access

K. Aswani Kumar, B.V. Subrahmanyam, S.V. Phanidra, S. Satish Kumar, P.N. Harish, P. Ramamohan and Amit Agrawal

Abstract

Background: Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is recognized as a serious public health problem resulting in significant morbidity, mortality and permanent disability. The present study is aimed to describe the epidemiological characteristics and outcome of patients with traumatic spinal cord injury in rural tertiary referral care center form South India.

Material and methods: The present study was conducted at Narayana Medical College and Hospital, Nellore. All patients admitted and managed for traumatic spinal cord injury were retrieved and data collected in a pre-designed proforma. Patient characteristics, details of etiology, mechanism of injury, level of injury, extent of neurological deficits, details of investigations, details of management and immediate outcome were recorded.

Results: A total 152 patients were included in the present study. The mean age was 38.45 years and majority the patients were young adult males. The mean hospital stay was 19.12 days. 71.7% percent patients were non-agriculture workers (mainly involved in construction work) and 28.3% patients were farmers. 61.2% of the patients sustained injuries due to fall from height and 34.2% patients sustained injuries due road traffic accidents. Cervical spine injuries were most common (44.1%), followed by thoraco-lumbar region (36.8%) and dorsal spinal region (19.1%). 9 patients expired in post-injury during hospital stay and all of them had complete cervical spinal cord injury. All patients received aggressive rehabilitation care.

Conclusion: In accordance with the literature our results reflect that traumatic spinal cord injuries affect young population and can leave these persons with significant functional and physical morbidity. The major limitation of the study is that it is a single institution based and may not reflect the true spectrum of traumatic spinal cord injuries in the population.

Open access

Metali Sarkar, Vikas K. Sangal, Haripada Bhunia, Pramod K. Bajpai, Harish J. Pant, Vijay K. Sharma, Anil Kumar and A. K. Naithani

Abstract

The pulp and paper industry is highly dependent on water for most of its processes, producing a significant amount of wastewater that should be treated to comply with environmental standards before its discharge into surface-water reservoirs. The wastewater generated primarily consists of substantial amounts of organic, inorganic, toxic and pathogenic compounds in addition to nutrients, which are treated in an effluent treatment plant that often combines primary, secondary, tertiary and advanced treatments. However, the treatment methods vary from industry to industry according to the process utilized. The effective performance of effluent treatment plants is crucial from both environmental and economic points of view. Radiotracer techniques can be effectively used to optimize performance and detect anomalies like dead zones, bypassing, channelling, etc. in wastewater treatment plants. Experiments on the distribution of residence time were performed on the aeration tank and secondary clarifier of a full-scale pulp and paper mill to study the flow behaviour as well as locate system anomalies and hence evaluate the performance of the treatment plants using the radiotracer I-131. The convolution method was applied to model the system with an imperfect impulse radiotracer input. The aeration tank was working efficiently in the absence of any dead zones or bypassing. Various hydrodynamic models available in the literature were applied on the aeration tank and secondary clarifier to obtain the hydraulic representation of the systems.

Open access

Lokesh Jain, Harish Kumar, Ravinder Kumar Singla, Pritpal Singh and Jagjeet Singh Lore

Abstract

A dynamic fuzzy rule promotion approach for the promotion of a confidence factor of a rule for every successful session in diagnosis of a disease in crops by using the specific rules, has already been proposed in literature. This technique has the limitation that an error in the initial estimation of weights reduces linearly after every session the rule is being used. In this paper an improved approach has been proposed using the square root of sum of squares of frequencies, which are spread around the mean true value to reduce the error around a mean value. A rule set for the diseases and their symptoms for the paddy plant has been provided to make comparison between the previous and the improved approach. It has been shown that the improved approach decreases the error in uncertainty of estimation of weight for rules after every successful session. It has also been proposed that the improved approach must be applied in agricultural information dissemination system.