Proteome analysis has been applied in multiple studies in the context of chronic kidney disease, aiming at improving our knowledge on the molecular pathophysiology of the disease. The approach is generally based on the hypothesis that proteins are key in maintaining kidney function, and disease is a clinical consequence of a significant change of the protein level. Knowledge on critical proteins and their alteration in disease should in turn enable identification of ideal biomarkers that could guide patient management. In addition, all drugs currently employed target proteins. Hence, proteome analysis also promises to enable identifying the best suited therapeutic target, and, in combination with biomarkers, could be used as the rationale basis for personalized intervention. To assess the current status of proteome analysis in the context of CKD, we present the results of a systematic review, of up-to-date scientific research, and give an outlook on the developments that can be expected in near future. Based on the current literature, proteome analysis has already seen implementation in the management of CKD patients, and it is expected that this approach, also supported by the positive results generated to date, will see advanced high-throughput application.
Urinary Proteome Analysis using Capillary Electrophoresis Coupled to Mass Spectrometry: A Powerful Tool in Clinical Diagnosis, Prognosis and Therapy Evaluation
Proteome analysis has emerged as a powerful tool to decipher (patho) physiological processes, resulting in the establishment of the field of clinical proteomics. One of the main goals is to discover biomarkers for diseases from tissues and body fluids. Due to the enormous complexity of the proteome, a separation step is required for mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteome analysis. In this review, the advantages and limitations of protein separation by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, liquid chromatography, surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization and capillary electrophoresis (CE) for proteomic analysis are described, focusing on CE-MS. CE-MS enables separation and detection of the small molecular weight proteome in biological fluids with high reproducibility and accuracy in one single processing step and in a short time. As sensitive and specific single biomarkers generally may not exist, a strategy to overcome this diagnostic void is shifting from single analyte detection to simultaneous analysis of multiple analytes that together form a disease-specific pattern. Such approaches, however, are accompanied with additional challenges, which we will outline in this review. Besides the choice of adequate technological platforms, a high level of standardization of proteomic measurements and data processing is also necessary to establish proteomic profiling. In this regard, demands concerning study design, choice of specimens, sample preparation, proteomic data mining, and clinical evaluation should be considered before performing a proteomic study.